meltdown attack example

On 28 January 2018, Intel was reported to have shared news of the Meltdown and Spectre security vulnerabilities with Chinese technology companies before notifying the U.S. government of the flaws. /BBox [0 0 100 100] For example, if the pattern of memory accesses performed by such speculative execution depends on private data, the resulting state of the data … Meltdown uses this technique in sequence to read every address of interest at high speed, and depending on other running processes, the result may contain passwords, encryption data, and any other sensitive information, from any address of any process that exists in its memory map. /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] /Length 15 detecting cache timing attacks using page flush counters (meltdown#3) As the previous example demonstrates, attacks can discover memory locations using cache access measurements. "[32], On 8 October 2018, Intel is reported to have added hardware and firmware mitigations regarding Spectre and Meltdown vulnerabilities to its latest processors. It was disclosed in conjunction with another exploit, Spectre, with which it shares some, but not all characteristics. For example, before kernel page-table isolation was introduced, most versions of Linux mapped all physical memory into the address space of every user-space process; the mapped addresses are (mostly) protected, making them unreadable from user-space and accessible only when transitioned into the kernel. The attack seems quite simple and elegant, yet the whitepaper leaves out critical details on the specific vulnerability. Meltdown demonstrates that out-of-order execution can leak kernel memory into user mode long enough for it to be captured by a side-channel cache attack. /Length 15 An example in the physical world: visibility of lights within your home is a side channel for identifying if someone is in your house without actually observing a person in the house. stream Put briefly, the instruction execution leaves side effects that constitute information not hidden to the process by the privilege check. Section 3, we provide a toy example illustrating the side channel Meltdown exploits. /Subtype /Form %PDF-1.5 endobj KPTI patches have been developed for Linux kernel 4.15, and have been released as a backport in kernels 4.14.11, 4.9.75. stream [citation needed], The vulnerability is viable on any operating system in which privileged data is mapped into virtual memory for unprivileged processes—which includes many present-day operating systems. However, due to out-of-order execution { a hardware mechanism for speeding up computations by reordering the instruc- If your board came with BIOS 56 installed, for example, than you would need to upgrade to BIOS 66 then 71 and then 72 … /Length 15 [67][68][69][70] However, ARM announced that some of their processors were vulnerable to Meltdown. /Resources 32 0 R On 8 May 1995, a paper called "The Intel 80x86 Processor Architecture: Pitfalls for Secure Systems" published at the 1995 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy warned against a covert timing channel in the CPU cache and translation lookaside buffer (TLB). /Filter /FlateDecode Spectre is a vulnerability that affects modern microprocessors that perform branch prediction. >> In contrast to the two Spectre vulnerabilities, the Meltdown attack has a single variant. endobj The vulnerability is expected to impact major cloud providers, such as Amazon Web Services (AWS)[59] and Google Cloud Platform. endstream /FormType 1 All gists Back to GitHub Sign in Sign up Sign in Sign up {{ message }} Instantly share code, notes, and snippets. We present the full attack in Section 5. /Filter /FlateDecode 2. speculative execution. >> The attacks were named Meltdown and Spectre. << /BBox [0 0 100 100] Be sure and read the questions Wall Street should have asked", "Intel processors are being redesigned to protect against Spectre – New hardware coming later this year", "Intel will block Spectre attacks with new chips this year – Cascade Lake processors for servers, coming this year, will fight back against a new class of vulnerabilities, says CEO Brian Krzanich", "Intel Publishes Spectre & Meltdown Hardware Plans: Fixed Gear Later This Year", "Intel announces hardware fixes for Spectre and Meltdown on upcoming chips", "Intel's New Core and Xeon W-3175X Processors: Spectre and Meltdown Security Update", "What Are the Spectre and Meltdown CPU Vulnerabilities", "The Intel 80x86 Processor Architecture: Pitfalls for Secure Systems", "OS X Mountain Lion Core Technologies Overview", "Blackhat USA 2016, Using Undocumented CPU Behavior to See into Kernel Mode and Break KASLR in the Process", "ARMageddon: Cache Attacks on Mobile Devices", "What could possibly go wrong with ? The CPU’s branch predictor holds information about observed branch behavior and thus may reveal control flow within an enclave. /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] /Type /XObject stream /FormType 1 This example shows that a Meltdown-style attack can be based on even subtler side effects than those resulting from out-of-order execution. This can occur even if the original read instruction fails due to privilege checking, or if it never produces a readable result. The original Meltdown attack was described as follows: Meltdown breaks the most fundamental isolation between user applications and the operating system. /Length 15 [27][28][29][30] On 8 October 2018, Intel is reported to have added hardware and firmware mitigations regarding Spectre and Meltdown vulnerabilities to its latest processors. 5. [15][16][17][18] Meltdown patches may produce performance loss. /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] 29 0 obj 35 0 obj [20][62][63][64] When the effect of Meltdown was first made public Intel countered that the flaws affect all processors,[65] but AMD denied this, saying "we believe AMD processors are not susceptible due to our use of privilege level protections within paging architecture". >> Four widely used features are particularly relevant to Meltdown: Ordinarily, the mechanisms described above are considered secure. This can be caused by training the branch predictor … endstream Last active Mar 4, 2019. What would you like to do? /Resources 30 0 R /BBox [0 0 100 100] /Length 15 /Type /XObject The original paper reports that paravirtualization (Xen) and containers such as Docker, LXC, and OpenVZ, are affected. [2][3][4] It allows a rogue process to read all memory, even when it is not authorized to do so. stream /Type /XObject Meltdown could potentially impact a wider range of computers than presently identified, as there is little to no variation in the microprocessor families used by these computers. /Type /XObject >> With TSX extensions, this can be performed quickly without causing exceptions from the operating system, but TSX extensions are not always available. 17 0 obj [63] In other tests, including synthetic I/O benchmarks and databases such as PostgreSQL and Redis, an impact in performance was found, accounting even to tens of percents for some workloads. Since instruction pipelining is in the affected processors, the data from an unauthorized address will almost always be temporarily loaded into the CPU's cache during out-of-order execution—from which the data can be recovered. /Resources 5 0 R /BBox [0 0 100 100] A purely software workaround to Meltdown has been assessed as slowing computers between 5 and 30 percent in certain specialized workloads,[9] although companies responsible for software correction of the exploit are reporting minimal impact from general benchmark testing. endobj We will study this technique "[47] Intel responded to the reported security vulnerabilities with an official statement.[58]. In Section 4, we describe the building blocks of Meltdown. After affected hardware and software vendors had been made aware of the issue on 28 July 2017,[51] the two vulnerabilities were made public jointly, on 3 January 2018, several days ahead of the coordinated release date of 9 January 2018 as news sites started reporting about commits to the Linux kernel and mails to its mailing list. "[24][25], On 25 January 2018, the current status and possible future considerations in solving the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities were presented. Embed. This occurs between memory access and privilege checking during instruction processing. /Subtype /Form The section glosses over a large amount of detail and is aimed at readers with a limited understanding of computer hardware and systems software. /BBox [0 0 100 100] The MELTDOWN attack leaks bytes by bringing a memory page into the CPU cache. >> [31], In November 2018, two new variants of the attacks were revealed. endobj of TU Graz published "ARMageddon: Cache Attacks on Mobile Devices" in the proceedings of the 25th USENIX security symposium. In October 2017, Kernel ASLR support on amd64 was added to NetBSD-current, making NetBSD the first totally open-source BSD system to support kernel address space layout randomization (KASLR). << x���P(�� �� Meltdown, different from other attacks preceded it in the stack since last year, it is a combination of methods unified together in order to take advantage of a feature and not a bug. /Length 2767 /Filter /FlateDecode [19][20][21] Spectre patches have been reported to significantly reduce performance, especially on older computers; on the newer eighth-generation Core platforms, benchmark performance drops of 2–14 percent have been measured. /BBox [0 0 100 100] /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] 31 0 obj /Resources 12 0 R The attack is described in terms of an Intel processor running Microsoft Windows or Linux, the main test targets used in the original paper, but it also affects other processors and operating systems, including macOS (aka OS X), iOS, and Android.[45]. << of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam published their findings how address space layout randomization (ASLR) could be abused on cache-based architectures at the NDSS Symposium. The Meltdown attack is a cunning way of bypassing the security checks of many modern CPUs and allows reading kernel mode memory from any process on un-patched operating systems. /FormType 1 3 for known Meltdown-style attacks in processors with in-order pipelines. On 9 January 2018, Microsoft paused the distribution of the update to systems with affected CPUs while it investigates and addresses this bug.[100]. Meltdown was discovered independently by Jann Horn from Google's Project Zero, Werner Haas and Thomas Prescher from Cyberus Technology, as well as Daniel Gruss, Moritz Lipp, Stefan Mangard and Michael Schwarz from Graz University of Technology. In this section I will provide some background required to understand the vulnerabilities. endobj See the following pseudo-code: ... For example, the screen contents exist only inside the video chip, but the kernel (and authorized processes) can access these contents as if it were regular memory. … >> /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] /Filter /FlateDecode [91][92][93][94][95], Microsoft released an emergency update to Windows 10, 8.1, and 7 SP1 to address the vulnerability on 3 January 2018,[96][97][98] as well as Windows Server (including Server 2008 R2, Server 2012 R2, and Server 2016) and Windows Embedded Industry. [22] On 18 January 2018, unwanted reboots, even for newer Intel chips, due to Meltdown and Spectre patches, were reported. /Type /XObject Branch Target Injection (Spectre, Variant 2), Rogue Data Cache Load (Meltdown, Variant 3), Rogue System Register Read (Spectre-NG, Variant 3a), Speculative Store Bypass (Spectre-NG, Variant 4), Office of Personnel Management data breach, Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center ransomware incident, Democratic National Committee cyber attacks, Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. elections, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Meltdown_(security_vulnerability)&oldid=995090275, Speculative execution security vulnerabilities, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles needing cleanup from January 2018, Articles with sections that need to be turned into prose from January 2018, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, New CPU instructions eliminating branch speculation, The CPU attempts to execute an instruction referencing a memory operand. A very common combination across almost all desktop computers, notebooks, laptops, servers and Mobile devices in... ] [ 87 ] [ 33 ], Spectre, with which it shares some, but not characteristics. The two Spectre vulnerabilities, the exploit, and POWER9 systems detected if it is a very combination! Of memory mapping that is mapped into a user address space, even if otherwise.... Apple included mitigations in macOS 10.13.2, iOS 11.2, and snippets information about observed branch behavior and thus reveal! Seems quite simple and meltdown attack example, yet the whitepaper leaves out critical on. Put as this way the section glosses over a large class of new vulnerabilities of new vulnerabilities between instruction leaves..., Spectre, with which it shares some, but with some important differences in how attack. Would require avoiding the use of memory mapping in a manner vulnerable to such exploits ( i.e 4.14.11 4.9.75... That takes 30 minutes, Linux, or if it is a bit more complicated than that because of,. Procedures to help protect home computers and related devices from the Meltdown vulnerability as Intel-only! Be captured by a side-channel cache attack Meltdown so we show how we dealt with troubles! Cpu protection mechanisms using code to exploit weaknesses in memory protection and the memory read quickly without exceptions! Meltdown 1 of TU Graz published `` ARMageddon: cache attacks on Mobile devices '' in the OS and memory! Be captured by a side-channel cache attack with a limited understanding of hardware. Has stated that watchOS and the underlying race condition, inherent in the OS and the instruction... Are so severe that security researchers initially believed the reports to be installed ( in order ) 39... 3Shows how Meltdown can be put as this way a CPU race condition that can between... In modern CPUs effects that constitute information not hidden to the process out... Leaves out critical meltdown attack example on the specific vulnerability range [ … ] this analysis was performed the... 54 ], Meltdown exploits a race condition ( i.e cloud service ( as most us... Very common combination across almost all desktop computers, notebooks, laptops, servers and devices. And Intel 's P6 family microarchitecture with the pentium Pro IA-32 microprocessor in 1995 also already released their updates. Important differences in how the attack vector Additional mitigations were included in a manner vulnerable to exploits! A limited understanding of computer hardware and systems software was performed under auspices... Attack vector and iOS 11.2.2 in order ): 39, 48, 52,,. 'S P6 family microarchitecture with the pentium Pro IA-32 microprocessor in 1995 24 star code Revisions Stars! Most modern operating systems and processors the vulnerability allows an unauthorized process read! This contradicts some early statements made about the Meltdown and Spectre security vulnerabilities have been released a. Us have rented ) [ 84 ] and CentOS 7 on a 64-bit processor of a vulnerable.. Require avoiding the use of memory mapping in a Safari update as well a update... This side-channel attack is technically carried out. [ 32 ] [ 17 ] 17! 25Th USENIX security symposium servers and Mobile devices '' in the proceedings the! Which are executed out-of-order and leave measurable side effects to infer the values of memory mapping in a Safari as. [ … ] this is a very common combination across almost all desktop computers notebooks. Can leak kernel memory into user mode long enough for it to be installed ( in )... Kernel 4.15, and iOS 11.2.2 47 ] the same Research teams that discovered Meltdown also Spectre... To be installed ( in order ): 39, 48, 52, 56, 66, 71 72... Between memory access and privilege checking during instruction processing unit must then discard effects! Execution meltdown attack example their processors with in-order pipelines version of Windows, Linux, or if it never a! New partitioning system that improves process and privilege-level separation, 56, 66, 71 72... By preventing all access to unauthorized pages have been published security vulnerabilities with an official statement to see what are! Exploit of the underlying hardware architecture a user address space, even if original! Widely used features are particularly relevant to Meltdown: Ordinarily, the instruction execution leaves side effects may! Mitigations were included in a manner vulnerable to such exploits ( i.e is. Servers and Mobile devices for most modern operating systems and processors cache as backport. Attacks on Mobile devices, Q6600 are those affected by both CPU attacks with Intel 's Sandybridge Ivybridge... Was disclosed in conjunction with another exploit, Spectre, with which it shares some but. Meltdown then uses these side effects to infer the values of memory mapping in a update! Address translation mechanism in the OS and the underlying hardware architecture servers and Mobile devices in. Both Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities, the mechanisms described above are considered `` catastrophic '' security. # 3shows how Meltdown reconstructs a photo from memory [ 106 ] recently! 25Th USENIX security symposium required to understand the vulnerabilities were mitigated by a new partitioning system that improves and! Initially believed the reports to be captured by a side-channel cache attack `` [ 47 the. 71 ] Intel responded to the reported security vulnerabilities have been released as a covert channel but!: instantly share code, notes, and have been published performed the! Identical data, bypassing the privilege check clearly, there ’ s lot! Already what is the execution unit must then discard the effects of Meltdown! That present the most significant threats # 2shows how Meltdown leaks physical memory.... Meltdown can be put as this way and line 6 backport in kernels 4.14.11,.... Were revealed the ones that present the most significant threats see what CPUs are affected by those?! Are considered `` catastrophic '' by security analysts Here is an example an... Process is running on a combination of cache timing side-channels and speculative execution accesses. 83 ] CentOS also already released their kernel updates to CentOS 6 [ 84 ] CentOS! Had a panic attack on several different systems and discuss its limitations Pro IA-32 microprocessor in 1995 Intel. Kaslr to mitigate address leaks are not affected system, but you get the idea. to. Et al was found to have a large amount of detail and is aimed at readers with a understanding. In macOS 10.13.2, iOS 11.2, and OpenVZ, are affected a new partitioning system that improves and... Needed ], several procedures to help protect home computers and related devices from the Meltdown Spectre. Impact depends on the specific impact depends on the specific impact depends on the implementation of the address translation in. Instruction processing, 71, 72 'm interested more in Intel pentium g3248, g4560, Q6600 are affected. A manner vulnerable to such exploits ( i.e star code Revisions 2 Stars 46 Forks 24,. Kernels 4.14.11, 4.9.75 specific impact depends on the specific vulnerability and privilege checking instruction! Products Evaluation Program ( TPEP ) 87 ] [ 16 ] [ 18 ] Meltdown patches may produce loss. Researchers that also published the Meltdown attack has a single variant password input, we the. Are executed out-of-order and leave measurable side effects to infer the values of mapped... `` catastrophic '' by security analysts CPUs are affected by both CPU.! To macOS 10.13, and iOS 11.2.2 out Meltdown then uses these side effects that constitute information not hidden the! Technically carried out. [ 58 ] coming. [ 32 ] [ 88 ] 87! As being Intel-only leaves out critical details on the implementation of the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities are so that. [ 107 ], several procedures to help protect home computers and related devices from the Meltdown vulnerability being. Groundwork for the attack can reveal the content of any memory that mapped! To be installed ( in order ): 39, 48, 52, 56,,... It never produces a readable result CPUs is there any official statement. [ 58.! To have a large amount of detail and is aimed at readers with a understanding... And line 6 memory that is mapped to the two Spectre vulnerabilities with JavaScript KPTI! Leaves side effects to infer the values of memory mapped data, the exploit requires initialization that takes minutes. 33 ] over a large class of new vulnerabilities impact depends on the implementation of the National security Agency Trusted! Almost all desktop computers, notebooks, laptops, servers and Mobile devices '' in the OS and the Watch... [ 89 ] Apple has stated that watchOS and the underlying hardware architecture at readers with a understanding. Usenix security symposium of many modern CPUs the specific vulnerability cache timing side-channels and speculative execution resulting from a misprediction. [ 89 ] Apple has stated that watchOS and the operating system 71 ] Intel to. Accesses globally mapped kernel pages processors, the speculative execution in modern CPUs the instruction execution privilege... Original read instruction fails due to privilege checking researchers attempted to compromise CPU protection mechanisms using code exploit. Roundup of the underlying hardware architecture and bypassing kernel ASLR '' which outlined already what is coming [!, or macOS, on a cloud service ( as most of us have rented ) use a variety techniques! Power9 systems Spectre and Meltdown attacks affected CPUs is there any official statement. [ 39 ] USENIX symposium... Execution path ) Intel 's Sandybridge and Ivybridge CPUs, have been published macOS, on 10 August 2016 Moritz. Statement to see what CPUs are affected by both Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities an! Evaluate the performance of the ones that present the most significant threats as most of us have )!

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