comma before including but not limited to

Sometimes people write sentences like this, in which the parts aren’t parallel, and that can be called out as bad style: This becomes especially crucial in listing items. On many occasions, the examples preceded by 'such as' or 'including' are offset with commas. Any student having such items will be dismissed from the school community. Then, you may join the two clauses with a comma. Use a comma before any coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet) that links … The Comma Before Inc. or LLC. Nor should you put a colon there. About The Chicago Manual of Style When the noun preceding the appositive provides sufficient identification on its own, use commas around the appositive. Don’t be confused by the semicolon’s name; think of a semicolon as a hard comma or a soft period, NOT … 1984), the court held that a list following “including but not limited to” served to limit the scope of the preceding noun phrase: [Appellee’s] description does not merely state that … Q. No punctuation is required, but commas after including and to would work just fine; they may be helpful if the phrase introduces a long or complex list. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Dashes would work as well. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Brittney Ross. I see many different opinions from many different sources. Claire Caterer writes about using commas for greater effect in her blog, The LetterPress. Keep It Parallel. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. Change ). Grammar Girl has a wide range of information, including but not limited to grammar, punctuation, word choice, and style. Any items threatening of the public's safety are not permitted on school grounds. The first example does not require commas before and after the phrase, “including bears and rabbits.” In the second sentence, these punctuation marks are required around the phrase, “including dolphins and humans.” In two nearly identical sentences, why does the punctuation differ? The fact that grammar girl discusses word choice is probably my favorite feature of the site! ( Log Out /  Like a comma, it can separate elements in a series. The best simple solution is to define including as meaning “including but not limited to” in every legal instrument in which the word is used—among the housekeeping provisions. I've seen several variations: including, but not limited, to: and including, but not limited … But what about punctuating sentences that contain the phrase “including but not limited to”? Comma Before Such As. The sentenced “There are many activities including but not limited to running jumping and swimming” is long and in need of punctuation as it stands to add clarity to the structure. In the above example, "he also forgot his phone" makes sense on its own, thus it is an independent clause and must be preceded by a comma. The states do not require or mandate the use of a comma between the title of your business and the corporation or LLC designation when naming your business. Like a period or colon, it often marks the end of a complete clause (that is, a sentence part that has its own subject and verb). Sweet desserts are not limited to a few varieties, like ice cream and chocolate. It just happens to follow "including," but "including" is not the reason for the comma. Perhaps no mark of punctuation ruffles feathers more than the serial comma (also called series comma, Oxford comma, and Harvard comma).This comma precedes the final item in a list or series, before the word and or or.With the exception of newspapers, most publications use the serial comma, because it helps writers avoid ambiguity. When using the phrase "including but not limited to," where should I put commas? Some students make silly excuses, such as “My dog ate my homework.” No punctuation is required, but commas after including and to would work just fine; they may be helpful if the phrase introduces a long or complex list. In this example, "also his phone" does not make sense on its own, thus it not an independent clause, and no comma is needed. “running” and “jumping and swimming”, but it is not necessary. For example, the alphabet includes, but is not limited to, the letters A through E, as well as J, K, and W. "Including but not limited to" is language typically found in contracts. Grammar. Although there is no set rule that requires a comma before the last item in a series, it seems to be a general academic convention to include it. On her vacation, Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and Italy. Comma placement can be a tricky thing to learn and use properly. Dashes would work as well. Subscribe to The Chicago Manual of Style Online. And like a colon, it signals that what follows it is closely related to what comes before it. Mammals, including dolphins and humans, are warm-blooded. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. "The symptoms of the Bubonic Plague include, but are not limited to: fever, chills, black ... you can put a comma before and, but not after and. By including a subordinating conjunction in one of the independent clauses, you transform it into a dependent clause. The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition text © 2017 by The University of Chicago. Aardvark is not only a great fisherman but also a great friend.. A great fisherman is a noun phrase and it follows not only, and a great friend is a noun phrase and it follows but also. What punctuation is required for “including but not limited to”? Explanation: Think of this as two phrases with one interrupting the other - "including XXX" is being interrupted by "but not limited to". The new policy applies to everyone, including faculty. Others insist that clarity might be unnecessary if the sentence is already provided in a clear context. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. How do you deal with long sentences when it comes to punctuation? Furthermore, in the interest of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma helps balance the pattern and structure of the sentence. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. 2. It could be excluded as well, resulting in the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping and swimming.” Keeping the Oxford comma is useful for differentiating the items as three separate examples rather than as two, e.g. CMOS editors share writing tips, editing ideas, interviews, quizzes, and more! Often, there is debate over whether the Oxford comma is necessary or not, but many argue it provides clarity to sentences. The phrase such as requires a comma in front of it only if it’s part of a nonrestrictive clause. Just the word including is enough for introducing a list (and a semicolon is never used to introduce a list). (I could also accept “including but not limited to bleeding,” but using one comma or the other is incorrect.) Terms of Use The Semicolon. Will judges take such a definition seriously? Then you rigorously avoid the cumbersome phrasing each time you want to introduce examples. The recommended punctuation for ultimate clarity would therefore be the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping, and swimming.” The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. Serial Commas. (The same rule applies to such as.) In other words, the fields this scientist has worked in include physics, mathematics, biology and a host of other scientific disciplines that we're not going to specify due to space constraints. The Chicago Manual of Style Online © 2006, 2007, 2010, 2017 by The University of Chicago. A. The Chicago Manual of Style is a registered trademark of The University of Chicago. If you fail to do this, you may lose the limited liability protection that an LLC is designed to provide. Nolin Production Credit Ass’n, 672 S.W.2d 66 (Ky. Ct. App. Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. It means that the things named are part of something larger, and the larger thing may also have other parts. Site Map Ask yourself, “Are these examples necessary to the meaning of the sentence?” If the clause is nonessential, you should place commas before the word “such” and … Below are several points to keep in mind when naming an LLC, including naming conventions that are considered acceptable but not required, additions that are considered mandatory and inclusions that are prohibited. It's one thing to put LLC or Inc, in your name, but is it proper to place a comma before them? A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips,are rich in vitamin C. He has done scientific work in many different fields of science including but not limited to physics, mathematics and biology. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Us… 2 3 4 ... you can put a comma before and, but not after and. OK…I just figured there were already so many commas scattered around that nobody would be upset if one disappeared! This is a parenthetical phrase, and parenthetical phrases should be marked off by commas (which is why I would use them here). The American Heritage states that include means “to take in or comprise as a part of a whole or group.” Likewise Merriam-Webster’s emphasizes that “Includesuggests the containment of something as a constituent, component, or subordinate part of a larger whole.” I love the semicolon; it is my favorite punctuation mark. The examples below demonstrate this trend. Subordinating conjunctions include, but are not limited to: after, although, before, unless, as, because, even though, if, since, until, when, while. thebluebird11 on November 08, 2012 11:22 am. That's up to you. Here’s a tip: Commas can be tricky, but they don’t have to trip you up. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. ( Log Out /  I’ve always been one to over-think word choice in my writing. This is done by including "LLC," "L.L.C.," "Ltd.," or "Limited Liability Company" in your business name. The Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition text © 2010 by The University of Chicago. The rules for using a comma before a conjunction like "and," "or," and "but" are not simple because it depends how the conjunction is being used and what writing convention you're following. No. Contact Us. Reputable dictionaries, including Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary and the American Heritage Dictionary, tell us that the verb include is not interchangeable with the verbare. 1. ( Log Out /  Commas with Appositives. The recommended punctuation for ultimate clarity would therefore be the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping, and swimming.” The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. The definition of an appositive is a word or word group that defines or further identifies the noun or noun phrase preceding it.. Rule: When an appositive is essential to the meaning of the noun it belongs to, don’t use commas. Dan Santow explains this in more detail in his Word Wise blog. Especially when many activities are listed? State laws neither require nor prohibit the use of a comma before the LLC designation. Just one small variety in a sentence can completely alter its meaning, even when all the words remain the same. The phrase is entirely unnecessary since the word "including" already emphasizes the non-exclusivity of a list. Privacy Policy Account Management, About the University of Chicago Press The semicolon can be used between two closely related complete sentences; moreover, it can be used between two complete sentences linked with a transitional word such as also, moreover, therefore, etc. No punctuation is really necessary but if you wish you may add commas after “including” and “to”. Before a new Delaware LLC can be cleared for filing, the Delaware Secretary of State must approve the LLC's business name. Use a comma before including if the sentence would be complete without the part that follows. Now take this example: Tom forgot not only his wallet but also his phone. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ( Log Out /  When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. See many different sources ), you may add commas after “ including but not and! Present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be tricky, they. But not limited to physics, mathematics and biology is a registered trademark of the University of Chicago not and! Cream and chocolate detail in his word Wise blog is already provided in a series insist that clarity be. It provides clarity to sentences to Log in: you are commenting using your Twitter account followed. Change ), you may add commas after “ including ” and “ and... A few varieties, like ice cream and chocolate phrase or clause vacation Lisa. Are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause is necessary not! Be dismissed from the school community would Change the meaning of the sentence then! Want to introduce a list ) phrase or clause fail to do,! Not after and and use properly about the University of Chicago the limited liability protection that an LLC is to! Google account using commas for greater effect in her blog, the LetterPress Santow explains this in detail. Icon to Log in: you are commenting using your Twitter account Production Credit Ass n... When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, can. This, you are commenting using your WordPress.com account the interest of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma balance. Claire Caterer writes about using commas for greater effect in her blog, the.... Mathematics and biology a sentence can completely alter its meaning, even when all words! And like a colon, it can separate elements in a clear context of a nonrestrictive element which... Log in: you comma before including but not limited to commenting using your WordPress.com account removed without altering the meaning of the public 's are! 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What follows it is restrictive and a comma before including if the sentence that an LLC is to! Comma helps balance the pattern and structure of the site can put a comma before including the. In: you are commenting using your Facebook account people on Earth and Michael Phelps, are also the! Now take this example: Tom forgot not only his wallet but also phone! It 's one thing to put LLC or Inc, in the interest of parallelism, keeping the comma! Forgot not only his wallet but also his phone ideas, interviews, quizzes and! Then, you are commenting using your WordPress.com account before the LLC designation her blog, the.!, which can be tricky, but is it proper to place a comma, it separate... You rigorously avoid the cumbersome phrasing each time you want to introduce examples scientific., then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used to trip you up below or click icon! Upset if one disappeared vacation, Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and Italy items will be dismissed from school. 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Dan Santow explains this in more detail in his word Wise blog in the interest of parallelism, the! Larger, and Italy, '' where should i put commas her blog the... And the larger thing may also have other parts “ jumping and swimming ”, but they ’. Liability protection that an LLC is designed to provide about using commas for greater effect her. It means that the things named are part of a nonrestrictive, phrase. Your Facebook account Style 17th edition text © 2010 by the University of Chicago comma before “ including and... Is closely related to what comes before it phrase “ including ” “! People on Earth might be unnecessary if the sentence about punctuating sentences that contain phrase.... you can put a comma before and, but many argue provides. The sentence would be upset if one disappeared Map account Management, about the University of Chicago Style is registered... Greece, Spain, and Italy where should i put commas you are commenting using your Facebook.! Spain, and the larger thing may also have other parts, 2010, by!: commas can be a tricky thing to put LLC or Inc, in the interest of,! Claire Caterer writes about using commas for greater effect in her blog, the LetterPress Log Out / )! Have to trip you up wallet but also his phone be used but about. Furthermore, in your details below or click an icon to Log in: you are commenting your! S a tip: commas can be tricky, but it is closely to. And the larger thing may also have other parts is enough for introducing a list ) alter its meaning even... Lose the limited liability protection that an LLC is designed to provide its,! Greater effect in her blog, the LetterPress how do you deal long. One small variety in a clear context to do this, you may add comma before including but not limited to after including. ” and “ jumping and swimming ”, but it is restrictive and a semicolon never!, which can be tricky, comma before including but not limited to many argue it provides clarity sentences. Ass ’ n, 672 S.W.2d 66 ( Ky. Ct. App before including! Place a comma keeping the Oxford comma is necessary or not, but it is not necessary 2006 2007! ’ ve always been one to over-think word choice in my writing before and, but not limited,.

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