Data comparison based on current U.S. dollars. If the firm isn’t able to bring its costs down significantly, that would translate into a fall in operating profits of up to 83 percent. A survey of start-ups found that 49 percent of Japanese entrepreneurs reported that “procuring funds for entry” is a major problem, well ahead of finding customers and hiring high-quality employees.496 To remedy this problem, the National Life Finance Corporation set up a new program to lend up to ¥10 million to start-ups without requiring collateral, guarantors, or personal guarantees. 167 Carl J. Dahlman, “The Innovation Challenge: Drivers of Growth in China and India,” National Research Council, Innovation Policies for the 21st Century (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2007) pp 45-60. ITRI consults with more than 30,000 domestic companies each year. FIGURE 5.5 India invests less than one percent of GDP on R&D spending. China’s Demographic Challenge. The region has seven universities, 22 non-university institutions of higher education, and five university-based institutes of higher education designed specifically to diffuse knowledge. 54 A list of government spending announcements for megaprojects is found in Springut, Schlaikjer, and Chen, op. As with the U.S. SBIR program, Japanese agencies that make research grants set aside a certain portion of their funds for small and midsized enterprises. Estimates of Taiwanese investment in mainland China, including those made through third parties, range from $150 billion to $300 billion.247 Taiwanese companies control and manage much of the electronics export sector.248 Taiwan has positioned itself as a global engineering and innovation hub bridging East and West. 4 Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China, China S&T Statistics Data Book 2010, Figure 1-1. 15 in the world in. 208 Confederation of Indian Industry and Boston Consulting Group, “Manufacturing Innovation: A Senior Executive Survey,” 2005. relevance. The expectation is that the government contribution will be supplemented by $9 billion in private capital. Already in 2019 the world is supporting an unsustainable 7.7 billion with an annual rise of 1 %. These engineers helped diffuse the knowhow widely, and helped Acer develop Taiwan’s first 16-bit, IBM-compatible computer. For those who believe government should play an active role as an investor to spur innovation, Singapore sets a high benchmark. Seven U.S. manufacturers of solar panels filed an anti-dumping petition with the Department of Commerce in October 2011 alleging that billions of dollars in government subsidies enabled China’s largest photovoltaic panel manufacturers to dramatically increase capacity, enabling them to push down prices and dominate the U.S. market. For the Indian government, however, the most urgent priorities in science and technology policy have been basic economic development. A November 2, 2015, press report, for example, stated the following: 56 The State Council announced Emerging Strategic Industries initiative was released following the Communist Party’s 2010 plenary. 331 Data cited in Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Research and Innovation in Germany, op cit. Patents earned CSIR labs rose from low single digits to more than 200 between 1995 and 2005. The government also is both expanding and reforming the nation’s highereducation system to strengthen basic research and commercialization. Figure 16. 374 Expert Commission on Research and Innovation, “Research, Innovation and Technological Performance in Germany Report 2010,” op. Automation technologies such as software robotics, machine learning, and natural-language processing are offering new ways to increase productivity and reduce costs in manufacturing and service companies alike. State Secretary Schütte noted that there is wide discussion in Germany whether this model is sustainable in light of growing shortages of skilled workers as the population ages and intensifying competition in manufacturing industries from East Asia. A study by the Asian Development Bank noted that the iPhone, although invented and designed in the U.S., contributed $1.9 billion to the U.S. trade deficit with China in 2009. Initially, the Japanese government responded to pressure from the U.S. to strengthen enforcement of violations. Underscoring its commitment to educating a creative class, the government established the new Singapore University of Technology and Design. Universities also were encouraged to become more commercially viable, compete for faculty and research funding, and cooperate with industry and government.47 They also were encouraged to form enterprises, incubate new companies, and create science parks. Global Lidar Market Trends, Forecast and Competitive Analysis 2013-2018 & Forecast to 2024: Opportunities in Corridor Mapping, Engineering, Environment, ADAS & Driverless Cars - ResearchAndMarkets.com Because students must focus on either liberal arts or science and technology at an early age, many do not get broad interdisciplinary education. Taiwan was the 5th in 2009 with respect to both total patents and utility patents. 294 Alice S. Huang and Chris Y. H. Tan, “Achieving Scientific Eminence Within Asia,” Science, Vol. These funding increases helped Japanese universities and national laboratories upgrade laboratories that had become outdated.480. 477 Lee Branstetter and Yoshiaki Nakamura, “Is Japan’s Innovation Capacity in Decline?” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 9438, January 2003. 31 For an extensive discussion of the controversies surrounding China’s indigenous innovation policies, see James McGregor, “China’s Drive for ‘Indigenous Innovation: A Web of Industrial Policies, “U.S. None were major players in their sectors, Dr. Flamm said.418. foreign trade, “Germany has a marked weakness in foreign trade in the area of cutting-edge technologies.”319 German R&D-intensive products overall make a positive contribution to Germany’s foreign trade, but not in the most R&Dintensive areas. A 2005 bilateral agreement called for greater cooperation in civilian uses of nuclear, space, and dual-use technology.236 The two nations also concluded a 10-year framework agreement for defense. Thirty percent of the 1,845 chairs filled so far are occupied by academics recruited from outside Canada.455, Each degree-granting school receives allocations of chairs based on research grants they win in national competitions, with special consideration for small institutions. Improving the quality and quantity of higher education is one of the government’s most urgent priorities. Learn about The government also has unveiled what it describes as Germany’s first comprehensive national innovation framework, High-Tech Strategy 2020, which seeks to consolidate public programs around well-defined missions.308, Some of these efforts appear to be bearing fruit. In India, she noted, Nicholas Piramal can buy “a lot of scientific horsepower” for the money. 230 UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2005, United Nations. Taiwan also won awards for a display technology that allows both 2D and 3D information to be viewed simultaneously with the naked eye and for the first non-toxic, fire-resistant composite technology.245, What’s more, Taiwan’s science and technology investments have enabled the economy to meet one of its most crucial strategic challenges: remaining a globally relevant sector in the wake of a rising China. “It is well known that the banks are not so supportive.”321, The German system also distributes its R&D investments very differently than the United States. The government is seeking to increase R&D by smaller companies by connecting them to federal research programs and through expanded financial subsidies. 6 among 142 nations in global competitiveness, including No. The study rated Germany No. Universities produce more than one-third of Chinese patents for inventions and 60 percent of published science and engineering papers.89. 138 Ministry of Information Industry, “Outline of the 11th Five-Year Plan and Medium-and-LongTerm Plan for 2020 for Science and Technology Development in the Information Industry,” Xin Bu Ke  No. 202 From presentation by P. V. Indiresan, retired professor of Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi in India’s Changing Innovation System, op. The Ministry of Education plans to invest $1.7 billion over five years in first-rate universities. 426 Eurostat and Statistics Finland data. 434 Findings of the National Audit Office and other studies of Tekes’ performance can be found in Markus Koskenlinna, “Additionality and Tekes,” Impact Analysis, Nov. 25, 2003 (http://www.taftie.org/Files/PDF/MarkusKoskenlinna.pdf). 423 See presentation by Heiki Kotilainen of Tekes in National Research Council, Comparative National Innovation Policies: Best Practice for the 21st Century, Charles W. Wessner, ed., Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2005. American companies interviewed in China cited mounting pressures to transfer core technology and discrimination against foreign companies for contracts as their most serious concerns. [See Figure 5.3] The difference between the $500 selling price of the iPhone and the $179 production cost went to Apple and retailers.71. 286 For example, see Richard W. Carney and Loh Yi Zheng, “Institutional (Dis)incentives to Innovate: An Explanation for Singapore’s Innovation Gap,” Journal of East Asia Studies 9(2):291-319 (http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Institutional+(dis)incentives+to+innovate%3A+an+explanation+for…-a0202704740). A turning point was the Knowledge Creates Markets initiative in 2001 to create a “broad-based patenting and exploitation infrastructure.” 342 Among other things, universities were given ownership of intellectual property created by academics, along the lines of the U.S. Bayh-Dole Act of 1980. One was for FlexUPD, billed as the first technology to enable the commercialization of paper-thin, low-cost, flexible flat-display panels for electronic products. “Someone can always find a precedent and say, ‘but you approved that one, so what’s wrong with me?’” It also was sometimes hard to demonstrate a direct impact to the Canadian economy from public investments: Recipients of Technology Partners funds included companies like IBM and Pratt & Whitney that operate in a world of global supply chains.465, Business spending on R&D also continues to lag in Canada, falling in 2010 for the third year in a row, to $14.8 billion.466 Although business funding of university research has risen sharply since 2001,467 corporations still account for only about 50 percent of total R&D spending in Canada, one of the lowest among major economies. 381 See presentation by Roland Schindler, executive director of Fraunhofer, in Meeting Global Challenges: U.S.-German Innovation Policy, op. 201 Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, “Survey of Emerging Skill Shortages in Indian Industry,” 2007 (http://www.ficcihen.com/Skill_Shortage_Survey_Final_1_.pdf). 47 See Lan Xue, “Universities in China’s National Innovation System,” prepared for the UNESCO Forum on Higher Education, Research, and Knowledge, 2006 (http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/files/51614/11634233445XueLan-EN.pdf/XueLan-EN.pdf). As a result of the program, “universities have moved to the center of the German science system,”. The world has become more globalized, competitive, dynamic and uncertain than ever before. In Plymouth, Mich., Fraunhofer USA has a state-of-the-art center to develop laser technologies, components, and systems. 8 Data from Research Triangle Foundation. 377 Greta Vervliet, Science, Technology, and Innovation, Ministry of Flanders, Science and Innovation Administration, 2006. I just encourage my designers to do fashionable designs.”112, The multinational research centers cover a vast range of innovation themes. Carl J. Dahlman of Georgetown University notes that economists traditionally have viewed competitiveness as a function of factors such as capital, the costs of labor and other inputs, and the general business climate. After achieving decades of astonishing growth led by export manufacturing and heavy capital investment, China’s leadership stresses that the nation’s future as a global power rests on its ability to build an innovation-led economy.2 China has pursued that goal with substantial investment and, 2 Government pronouncements on the importance of innovation began earlier. 37, behind Mexico and Romania.160 And while China has significantly increased its output of scientific publications, the average citation rate for Chinese papers in the Essential Science Indicators database over the period 1998-2008 was still well below the world leaders in science and technology.161 [See Figure 5.4], Chinese industries have indeed proved remarkably capable of “catching up” in maturing technologies and driving down prices. They have the technology they believe they can scale globally, but if they try to compete on a level playing field they will have problems.”104 Chinese officials agree that corporate innovation remains a significant challenge. 18 Seminar remarks summarized in Open Source Center Report (July 24, 2006). Other next-generation ITRI R&D programs include technology for wireless multimedia systems on a chip, wireless sensor networks, and wireless broadband. The company has licensed drug candidates to Eli Lilly and other Western pharmaceutical companies and has new biological entities in clinical testing that are potential treatments for asthma, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. As outlined in the 15-year science and technology plan and numerous published rules and guidelines over the past five years, the strategy includes compelling foreign companies to transfer core technology as a price for being able to sell into China’s immense domestic market.31. Invariably, these should include raising the strategic profile of automation at the company and pursuing ongoing investment in automation technologies. The government also provides early-stage financing for small and midsized enterprises and spreads the innovation message relentlessly through schools and the media. The goal is to support young companies for up to two years from the R&D stage through development of proof of concept and even market entry, by which time it is hoped that private financing will be available. China views broadband as a catalyst for new growth industries such as software, logistical services, information technology outsourcing, and a wide range of digital devices. The typical small Chinese enterprise receives only around 10 percent of its working capital from banks, compared to around 40 percent in South Korea and Thailand.119. The government also shifted much of the implementation of its policies from central ministries to local and provincial authorities.43. Finland also has strategic research centers for microelectronics, biotechnology, energy and environment, and broadband technology.400 Each center has a mandate to work with the private sector, and is allowed to collaborate with foreign companies as long as they contribute to the Flemish economy. Information and communications technologies (ICT) also are strategically important, not only as promising Chinese growth industries in themselves but also as a means for modernizing the economy. Despite pools of underemployed country-dwellers, China already faces shortages of manual workers. 53, The plan also designated 16 “megaprojects” that would establish China as a global leader in key industries and be backed with significant direct central government funding, bank loans, and policy tools such as tax breaks for companies. 309 German Federal Ministry of Education and Research data. Singapore also is upgrading higher education to meet the demands of a 21st century knowledge economy. That system is still evolving, however, and inefficiencies remain. While giving Germany strong marks in high technology and in research institutions, the study cited financing of innovative projects in particular as a “major barrier to innovation.” Aversion to risk is another constraint. Trend and proportion of global displacement, 1996-2015 49 Figure 18. The foundation’s board includes some government appointees but operates independently. 3 in routers by various market research firms.107 Huawei says it spends 10 percent of revenue on R&D, employs 51,000 research staff, and filed for more than 8,000 foreign patents.108 Although Huawei does not boast breakthrough products, it has a reputation for innovative applications and solutions in wireless communications.109, Huawei’s top Chinese rival, ZTE, is not far behind. There have been at least 20 spinoffs from IMEC through 2002, noted Kenneth S. Flamm of the University of Texas at Austin, only a few related to devices, materials, or equipment manufacturing. 37 See presentation by Carl Dahlman of Georgetown University in National Research Council, Innovation Policies for the 21st Century, Charles W. Wessner, editor, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. (June 2011). Chancellor Angela Merkel’s government has increased investments in R&D, which rose by one-third to €12 billion ($17.1 billion) from 2005 through 2008.306 Germany spent €80 billion in economic stimulus during the financial crisis, followed by a further €11 billion in stimulus that went to education and science and technology. cit. World Bank, Knowledge Assessment Methodology at http://go.worldbank.org/JGAO5XE940. universities, awards and competitions, outreach programs, and international collaboration.188. One is that it is difficult to design repayment terms that properly reflect risk and reward of a specific research project, Dr. Nicholson acknowledged. In the U.S., Dr. Harhoff noted, young inventors seeking to start a company often go to angel. By constantly improving infrastructure, higher education, and investment incentives, Singapore hopes that this growing research activity will eventually translate into homegrown innovation. Select topics and stay current with our latest insights, The tougher competitors in emerging markets. 44 The initial fields covered in the 863 program were biotechnology, space, information technology, automation, energy, and new materials. Germany is a world leader in optics, a €2 billion industry that also has received significant public support. Against that backdrop, we found several factors that could generate increasing momentum for adoption of automation technologies in emerging economies. 11 in innovation policy, primarily for spending just 4.5 percent of GDP on education in 2005 compared to 6 percent in countries like Finland and Sweden. India has become a closer partner with the United States in recent years. 441 IMD data cited in Science, Technology and Innovation Council, State of the Nation 2010, June 2011. Therefore, the government “has made new-generation IT development a core priority,” he said.79, The Shifting Role of Research Institutions. It has 30,000 R&D staff and 18 R&D centers, including several in the U.S. The program provides up to $1 million a year to some 1,400 firms, 80 percent of which have fewer than 50 employees, with the average receiving around $100,000. go to universities, national research universities, and early-stage financing for start-ups. 453 Canada Foundation for Innovation, 2009 Report on Results: An Analysis of Investments in Infrastructure (http://www.innovation.ca/docs/accountability/2009/2009%20Report%20on%20Results%20FINALEN.pdf). Projects run by companies can get soft loans at 3 percent interest if Indians or non-resident Indians control them. CISRI is regarded as a success story. The ten biggest asset managers have just 12 percent of their people in Asia, notwithstanding that the region contributes almost half of net flows. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong chairs the council, which also includes several cabinet ministers and international science and technology experts such as Stanford University President John Hennessy, Harvard Business School professor Clayton M. Christensen, Novartis International corporate research head Paul Herrling, and DuPont Chief Innovation Officer Thomas M. Connelly Jr. The university also has 40 staff offering management, information-technology, and advisory help to start-ups. America's position as the source of much of the world's global innovation has been the foundation of its economic vitality and military power in the post-war. Central and local governments also are supplying funds for universities to recruit star faculty and establish endowed chairs. The backbone of Taiwan’s strategy has been its industrial research institutes. The local government practice of paying patent fees for the first several years also is believed to inflate patent applications. 252 From presentation by Chu Hsin-Sen of Industrial Research and Technology Institute in National Research Council, Innovation Policies for the 21st Century: Report of a Symposium, Charles W. Wessner, editor, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2007. Battery Industry for Electric-Drive Vehicles. China is developing its own narrow-body jet to compete with Boeing and Airbus, but the core systems come from foreign aerospace firms and the body is based on a 1980s design by McDonnell Douglas. 139A report by the European Union Chamber of Commerce in China said that “industrial-policy interventions and restrictions on foreign investment have been on the rise” and that “European companies are increasingly concerned by the tendency for local companies to be favored over foreign-invested ones.” See European Union Chamber of Commerce in China, European Business in China Position Paper 2009/2010, executive summary (http://www.euccc.com.cn/images/documents/pp_2009-2010/executive_summary_en.pdf). The NSF will fully match funds for start-ups, which will be assessed based on their “potential to disrupt a current industry and create new ones,” according to the disruptive innovation methodology of Harvard Business School professor Clay Christensen.287, • Grants for polytechnics to perform translational research on R&D conducted by universities and public research institutes. 364, To address this goal, the government has taken several moves to help make more capital available to start-ups. A global mindset, according to Rhinesmith (1993: p.24), “is a way of being rather than a set of skills.It is an orientation of the world that allows one to see certain things that others do not. “Part of the secret of the photovoltaic industry is that the workforce was present when this industry developed,” Dr. Schindler explained.391. By 2007, they had relocated almost 100% of their production capacities in laptop PC, digital camera, motherboard and LCD monitor for PC into mainland China.”, once low spenders on R&D, contributed more than 69.7 percent of total spending on research in Taiwan.242, The island is beginning to excel in innovation as well. This chapter will describe how different nations studied by the STEP Board are addressing their innovation challenge. 281 National Research Council, S&T Strategies of Six Countries: Implications for the United States, Committee on Global Science and Technology Strategies and Their Effect on U.S. National Security, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. Beyond the broad technology goals and industrial-development targets, Germany is pursuing a range of initiatives aimed at improving the nation’s ability to innovate and disseminate new technologies more quickly and efficiently. cit. 11 National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Patterns of R&D Resources: 2008 Data Update, Detailed Statistical Tables, NSF 10-314 (March 2010), Tables 1-4. Despite its population of just 5.4 million, Finland has emerged as a global leader in innovation, consistently ranking the near top of the World Economic Forum’s annual Global Competitiveness Index.420 Finland has been. This report can be downloaded at http://www.proinnoeurope.eu/trendchart/annual-country-reports. A Fraunhofer center in Delaware focuses on molecular biotechnology. Once primarily providers of low-cost outsourced software and callcenter services, Indian corporations such as Tata Consulting Services, Infosys, Wipro, and Genpact now help clients ranging from the world’s biggest insurance companies and banks to airlines and legal firm develop innovative business processes that boost efficiency, cut cost, and improve customer service.216 India’s biggest IT services companies directly compete with giants such as IBM, Accenture, and Hewlett Packard, who also have major operations in India. 473 A National Academy report recently concluded, however, that Japan has still not adequately addressed some longstanding weaknesses in its S&T system “which include immobility of personnel, inadequate entrepreneurialism, insufficient opportunity for younger researchers, and abiding problems with industry-university-government collaboration.” National Academy of Sciences, S&T Strategies of Six Countries, op. 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