morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis

Oxford University Press Inc., New York, Chopra R, Raman DD, Sharma PK (2005) Morphometric analysis of sub-watersheds in Gurdaspur district, Punjab using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Moreover, the aspect and slope map of the study area were derived from the ASTER DEM using the aspect and slope tool in ArcGIS-9.3 spatial analyst module (Fig. The Rb for the Kanhar basin varies from 2.86 to 9 (Table 2). A circular basin is more efficient in runoff discharge than an elongated basin (Singh and Singh 1997). In this study, GIS and image processing techniques have been adopted for the ArcGIS is used for the Digitization of the watershed for Morphometric analysis. The goal of the present study is to analyze the linear and areal morphometric characteristics of drainage basin in south-eastern part of Nigeria using Geographical Information System (GIS), as so far no exhaustive work on the morphometric investigation of the region has been carried out. 1984; Merritts and Vincent 1989; Ohmori 1993; Cox 1994; Oguchi 1997; Burrough and McDonnell 1998; Hurtrez et al. The symbol AW denotes Tropical Swanah region. GIS-based evaluation using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data has given a precise, fast, and an inexpensive way for analysing hydrological systems (Smith and Sandwell 2003; Grohmann 2004). Pre-Cambrian 11. The SRTM Digital Elevation Model has been widely used in drainage basin analysis. Some of these summits show long continued erosion and which form platforms within the hillocks. The highest relative relief is calculated as 1,238 m, while the lowest value is recorded as 151 m (Fig. 2. - 188.166.230.38. Geol Geosci 2(4):1–10, Gottschalk LC (1964) Reservoir sedimentation in handbook of applied hydrology. Geol Soc Am Bull 101:1373–1388, Mesa LM (2006) Morphometric analysis of a subtropical Andean basin (Tucuman, Argentina). The channel segment numbers for unit areas are difficult to be enumerated (Singh 1980), but an attempt has been made to count stream frequency of Kanhar basin. In: Proceedings of the Int. Then the morphometric parame- It is very hot during the summers but gets quite cool during the winters. A slope map of the study area is calculated based on ASTER DEM data using the spatial analysis tool in ARC GIS-9.3. Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Zurich., v 1. Low value of relief ratios is mainly due to the resistant basement rocks of the basin and low degree of slope (Mahadevaswamy et al. 2013). Hydrologic and geomorphic processes occur within the watershed and morphometric characterization at the watershed scale reveals information regarding formation and development of land surface processes (Singh 1992, 1995; Dar et al. Am J Sci 248:655–668, Smith B, Sandwell D (2003) Accuracy and resolution of shuttle radar topography mission data. Ann Arid Zone 34(4):243–251, Singh S, Singh MB (1997) Morphometric analysis of Kanhar river basin. The GIS based Morphometric analysis of this drainage basin revealed that the Erravanka palli watershed is 5 th order drainage basin and drainage pattern mainly in sub-dendritic to dendritic type thereby indicates homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The middle Kanhar basin lies in the central part of the study basin covering an area of about 3,268.44 km2 or 52.34 %. Maximum rainfall (293.0 mm) recorded in month of August. and 55E/8 on the scale of 1:50,000 by the use of GIS software (Fig. The increase in stream length ratio from lower to higher order shows that the study area has reached a mature geomorphic stage. It has been further divided into 11 s order morpho-units, namely Thema-Pangan Water Divide, Daukiduba-Pangan Confluence, Jogidah Upland, Kameshwar Nagar UPLAND, Kursa valley, Chutru upland, Biropani valley, Ramanuj Ganj upland, Chumki-Kanhar confluence, Budhudih hills, and Bhandaria upland. Co., New York, pp 235–274, Cox RT (1994) Analysis of drainage-basin symmetry as a rapid technique to identify areas of possible quaternary tilt-block tectonics: an example from the Mississippi embayment. Geographical information system (GIS) has emerged as an efficient tool in delineation of drainage pattern and ground water potential and its planning. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 26:169–175, Article  The geographic and geomorphic characteristics of a drainage basin are important for hydrological investigations involving the assessment of groundwater potential, etc. The result of this process will create a watershed boundary polygon from the flow direction raster data. Google Scholar, Burrough PA (1986) Principles of geographical information systems for land resources assessment. 6a. With its general monsoon character, the region according to Thornthwait’s classification falls in the Tropical Thermal belt assigns it the grassland type character. Hence, it is noticed that there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream order increases and vice versa. The drainage basin analysis is important in any hydrological investigation like assessment of groundwater potential and groundwater management. Hence, it is noticed that there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream order increases and vice versa. The Lsm values for the Kanhar basin range from 0.52 to 113.38 km (Table 2) with a mean Lsm value of 21.47 km. 2012b). Environ Earth Sci 64(2):373–381, Magesh NS, Chandrasekar N, Kaliraj S (2012a) A GIS based automated extraction tool for the analysis of basin morphometry. To overcome this problem, automatic extraction techniques have been used for evaluating the morphometric parameters of a basin, i.e., extraction of River basin/watershed boundary and extraction of drainage/stream network from the Kanhar River basin using ASTER DEM in conjunction with geocoded standard false colour composite remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm+ of 2013) and georeferenced SOI toposheets of 1972 (63P/3, 63P/4, 63P/7, 63P/8, 63P/12, 64M/6, 64M/9, 64M/10, 64M/11, 64M/12, 64M/14, 64M/16 and 73A/4 having 1:50,000 scale) and Lib Texas Toposheets No—NF44-4, NG44-11, NG44-12, NG44-16 having 1:250,000 scale using ARC GIS-9.3 and ERDAS Imagine-9.1 software’s. Higher density (3.23) is identified for Thema River sub-watershed whereas low drainage density (1.18) is calculated for Suria River sub-watershed (Table 9). This is mainly due to the diversity of slope and relief pattern of the basin. 6c). The highest value of atmospheric pressure, in the study area, is noted in the month of January (1,023.2 mb) and lowest in the month of June (1,003.3 mb). Strahler’s system of classification designates a segment with no tributaries as a first-order stream. The morphometric analysis is carried by the measurement of linear, aerial and relief aspects of basins. The present study deals mainly with the geometry, more emphasis being placed on the evaluation of morphometric parameters such as…, Morphometric Analysis and Landuse Study of Gabharu River Basin using Remote Sensing and GIS, Morphometric Analysis of Asa and Oyun River Basins, North Central Nigeria Using Geographical Information System, Hydrologic and morphometric analysis of Ofu River Sub-Basin using remote sensing and Geographic Information System, Morphometrical Evaluation of Sub-basins In Al- Arasah Area, Shabwah Province (Yemen), Using Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques, Automated Analysis the Watershed of Yarmouk Basin Using ASTER (DEM) Data and GIS, Watershed morphometric analysis of Wadi Baish Dam catchment area using integrated GIS-based approach, Quantitative Morphometric Analysis of the Adula Watershed, in Ahmednagar Maharashtra Using the ESRI- ArcGIS Tool, Morphometric Analysis of Galal Bedrah River Basin Using STRM (DEM) Data and GIS Techniques, Morphometric Analysis to Prioritize Sub-Watershed for Flood Risk Assessment in Central Karakoram National Park Using Gis/rs Approach, Morphometric Analysis of Kadvi River basin, Maharashtra Using Geospatial Techniques, Drainage Morphometry Using Satellite Data and GIS in Raigad District, Maharashtra, Runoff Estimation and Morphometric Analysis for Hesaraghatta Watershed Using IRS–1D LISS III FCC Satellite Data, Morphometric Analysis of Tungabhadra Drainage Basin in Karnataka using Geographical Information System, Investigations on Change Detection in Chandpur (M.S.) As pointed out above that Strahler’s system of classification designates a segment with no tributaries as a first-order stream. It is a significant ratio that indicates the dendritic stage of a watershed. They introduce the major elements needed to assess water resources and their hydrologic regime, thus it is recommended to apply similar studies in anywhere in India. In: Chow VT (ed) Handbook of applied hydrology. The morphometric parameters of Kanhar River basin have been calculated and the results are given in the Table 2. 2013). Horton (1932) stated form factor as the ratio of the area of the basin and square of the basin length. It has been computed by dividing the total stream length of order ‘u’ by the number of stream segments in the order (Table 3). In the present paper, morphometric analysis of the Kanhar River basin, based on several drainage parameters using remote sensing satellite data and latest GIS tools for drainage analysis, has been delineated. The order was given to each stream by following Strahler (1964) stream ordering technique. Mean stream length (km) of sub-watershed of Kanhar basin based on stream order is shown in the Table 5. Rc value of Kanhar basin is 0.15 (Table 2). It is clearly identified that the cumulative stream length is higher in first-order streams and decreases as the stream order increases. 7). Extraction of Kanhar River basin boundary through ASTER data. The remote sensing technique is the convenient method for morphometric analysis as the satellite images provide a synoptic view of a large area and is very useful in the analysis of drainage basin morphometry. The study intends to illustrate the procedure of assessing drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture analysis, and relief morphometric parameters using geoprocessing tools provided by Arc GIS software. Miller (1953) described Rc as a significant ratio that indicates the dendritic stage of a watershed. Evaluation of morphometric parameters requires the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), bifurcation ratio (Rb), stream length ratio (RL), and relief ratio (Rh). The attributes were allocated to Harper and Row, New York, pp 17–90, Evans IS (1984) Correlation structures and factor analysis in the investigation of data dimensionality: statistical properties of the Wessex land surface, England. Keywords: Morphometric analysis; GIS; SRTM data; Parbati river basin; Discharge Introduction The drainage basin is the fundamental unit in fluvial geomorphology within which the relationships between landforms and the processes that modify them have been studied. It has a rocky bed almost throughout its course. The output of the drainage network is smoothened using a smooth line tool in ArcGIS-9.3. J Environ Geol 47(3):412–420, Strahelr AN (1952) Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis of erosional topography. The Kanhar River basin is automatically extracted from the ASTER DEM data with a spatial resolution of 15 m using the georeferenced SOI toposheets. Kanhar basin is mainly dominated by lower order streams. Erosion risk parameters can be measured and calculated using DEM’s and Arc GIS software. The result of order-wise stream length in Kanhar basin is shown in Table 4. Lower Kanhar plain (less than 250 m): it is the lowest area being drained by Lauwa, Kanhar, Hathinala and small tributaries of Kanhar River. Thereafter, it flows for about 100 kilometres (62 miles) through Surguja district of Chhattisgarh. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 32(4):351–362, Department of Geography, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, UP, India, Praveen Kumar Rai, Kshitij Mohan, Sameer Mishra & Aariz Ahmad, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, 221005, UP, India, You can also search for this author in The present study aims at using the remote sensing and GIS technology to compute various parameters of morphometric characteristics of the Kanhar River watershed. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 33(4):531–539, Chorley RJ, Schumm SA, Sugden DE (1984) Geomorphology. Drainage characteristics of many river basins and sub-basins in different parts of the globe have been studied using conventional methods (Horton 1945; Strahler 1957, 1964; Krishnamurthy et al. A pour point is a user-supplied point to the cells of highest flow accumulation (Magesh et al. 2011). Based on the stream order, the Kanhar basin is classified as seventh-order basin to interpret the morphodynamic parameters as listed in Table 1 (Horton 1932, 1945; Smith 1950; Schumm 1956, 1963; Hadley and Schumm 1961; Strahler 1964; Sreedevi et al. It flows through the Indian states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh (Fig. [10] In this study, Kanhar basin a tributaries of Son River has been selected for detailed morphometric analysis. It is noted that Lsm value of any stream order is greater than that of the lower order and less than that of its next higher order in the basin. Morphometric analysis using remote sensing and GIS techniques have been well demonstrated by some of the The contributing basin area was extracted with the help of various geoprocessing techniques in ArcGI-9.3. Relative relief is an important morphometric variable used for the assessment of morphological characteristics of any topography (Gayen et al. The study areas are Asa River Basin and Oyun River Basin. 2005). It is inferred that the Kanhar River falls under seventh-order basin. Morphometry is the measurement and mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth’s surface, shape and dimension of its landforms (Clarke 1996; Agarwal 1998; Obi Reddy et al. 2011; Gayen et al. Natl Geogr J India 43(1):31–43, Smith KG (1950) Standards for grading texture of erosional topography. Rf value of the Kanhar basin is 0.18 (Table 2). Drainage provides a basic to understand initial gradient, variation in rock resistance, structural control, geological and geomorphologic history of the drainage basin or watershed. A morphometric analysis using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing tools was performed to study the Agua Negra River basin, in the Central Andes of western Argentina. Vimal Prakashan, Varanasi, Singh S (1992) Quantitative geomorphology of the drainage basin. 5. It is important in any hydrological investigation like assessment of groundwater potential, groundwater management, basin management and environmental assessment. The different morphometric parameters have been determined as shown in the Table 1. The variation of stream length ratio might be due to differences in slope/gradients and topographic conditions of the area. The chief feature of this climate is long dry period average monthly temperature rising over 18 °C, through maximum summer temperature may even go up to 46 °C. 2005; Mesa 2006). Oxford University Press, New York, p 50, Burrough PA, McDonnell RA (1998) Principles of geographical information systems. Manual extraction of drainage network and assigning the stream order from a published Survey of India (SOI) topographic map and from georeferenced satellite data for a large area is a time taking tedious exercise. Columbia University Department of Geology, ONR Geography Branch, New York, Moglen GE, Eltahir EA, Bras RL (1998) On the sensitivity of drainage density to climate change. Drainage density is related to various features of landscape dissection such as valley density, channel head source area, relief, climate and vegetation (Moglen et al. In the study area, Rc value of different sub-watershed of Kanhar basin is ranging from 0.246 to 0.411 (Table 10; Fig. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 31(1):25–35, Nautiyal MD (1994) Morphometric analysis of a drainage basin, district Dehradun, Uttar Pradesh. Digitization work has been carried out for entire analysis of basin morphometry using GIS software (ArcGIS ver: 9.0). 2012). The stream length ratio of Kanhar basin showed an increasing trend. Wherever the bedrock and formation is permeable, only a small number of relatively longer streams are formed in a well-drained watershed, a large number of streams of smaller length are developed where the bedrocks and formations are less permeable (Sethupathi et al. Morphometric analysis is best method for isolation of problem through which precise descriptions of the geometry of landforms could be harnessed as data could be collected, organized, and analyzed and visualized using remote sensing integrated with GIS techniques to resolve the applications. The Upper Kanhar basin lies in the southern part of basin covering an area of about 1,499.57 km2 (24.01 %). Aster DEM is used to prepare slope, aspect and contour maps. 2010). In general, the area is hilly with steep slope. 1996). A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0238-y. Higher values of elongation ratio show high infiltration capacity and low runoff, whereas lower Re values which are characterized by high susceptibility to erosion and sediment load (Reddy et al. The Lsm values differ with respect to different basins, as it is directly proportional to the size and topography of the basin. It is well established that the influence of drainage morphometry is very significant in understanding the landform processes, soil physical properties and erosional characteristics. GIS lndia 4(11):9–14, Oguchi T (1997) Drainage density and relative relief in humid steep mountains with frequent slope failure. It has been sub divided into four second-order morpho-units, namely Lahsunpat Bhalanad hills, Galphula-Kanhar confluence, Semarkhar-Rigar divide and Kusmi upland. De Silva1 Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture University of Peradeniya Sri Lanka ABSTRACT: Basin morphometry is a means of mathematically quantifying different aspects of a drainage basin. 6b). Therefore, these slopes have a higher moisture content and lower evaporation rate although and some parts are falling towards west facing which have a lower moisture content and have a high evaporation rate. 1999). The circulator ratio is mainly concerned with the length and frequency of streams, geological structures, land use/land cover, climate, relief and slope of the basin. 2010). The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data have been used for drainage morphometric analysis and evaluating various morphometric parameters Linear aspect, Aerial aspect Relief aspect. The stream length ratio between the streams of different orders of the Kanhar basin shows a change in each sub-watershed (Table 6). Flowing through forested areas, it becomes a dangerous stream. The irregular nature of this surface also indicates the completion of the denudation cycle. Elsevier publication. The aspect of a slope can make very significant influences on its local climate because the sun’s rays are in the west at the hottest time of day in the afternoon, and so in most cases a west-facing slope will be warmer than sheltered east-facing slope. Lower Rewa Sandstone 15. Various hydrological phenomena can be correlated with the physiographic characteristics of an drainage basin such as size, shape, slope of the drainage area, drainage density, size and length of the contributories, etc. Enschede, Vittala SS, Govindiah S, Honne Gowda H (2004) Morphometric analysis of sub-watersheds in the pawagada area of Tumkur district, South India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Quaternary 2. The low relief indicates that the northern area under Kanhar basin is flat to gentle slope type. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. (Upper Vindhyan) 13. Lab 4: Drainage Basin Morphometry Objectives: To better appreciate the usefulness of topographic maps as tools for investigating drainage basins and to master several morphometric variables used to characterize and analyze drainage basins. 2013. It is also well observed that remote sensing satellite data is emerging as the most effective, time saving and accurate technique for morphometric analysis of a basin. 2011). 2011). Details of stream order of several tributaries of Kanhar River and their sub-watershed area are shown in the Table 2. 2013). The highest stream order in the Kanhar basin was identified as seventh. Praveen Kumar Rai. J Geol 77:397–414, Singh KN (1980) Quantitative analysis of landfroms and settlement distribution in southern uplands of eastern Uttar Pradesh (India). The tributaries of the Kanhar River are Pangan, Thema, Lauwa, Malia, Pandu, Goitha, Banki, Hathi nala, Suria, Chana, Sendur, Kursa, Galphulla, Semarkhar Rigar, Cherna nala. 1. The monsoon brings sufficient rains. 1). The nature and structure of the area are responsible for erosion and recession of rivers. It is a dimensionless property and shows the degree of integration prevailing between streams of various orders in a drainage basin. The drainage density of the Kanhar basin is 1.72 km/km2, which indicates that basin area has a highly resistant permeable subsurface material with intermediate drainage and low to moderate relief. US Geol Survey Water Supply Paper 1531-B:198, Horton RE (1932) Drainage basin characteristics. Their updation in conjunction with old datasets brings a bright picture enabling geomorphologist to infer concrete conclusion about the drainage basin. Strahler (1964) indicated that the Lsm is a characteristic property related to the size of drainage network and its associated surfaces. It is the home to various tribes and natives which lived here since long. 2010). Morphometric analysis is carried out using Arc GIS (9.2) software, an advanced tool for measuring the drainage basin, the earth surface dimensions of landform and shape with in the short time. Applied Water Science This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its stream networks through ASTER (DEM) in conjunction with remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm+, 2013 and georeferenced survey of Indian toposheet, 1972). The maximum stream order frequency is observed in case of first-order streams and then for second order. volume 7, pages217–232(2017)Cite this article. It initially flows north forming the boundary with Garhwa district in Palamu division of Jharkhand. 1998), soil and rock properties (Kelson and Wells 1989) and landscape evolution processes. Topographic map (53 O/9) of 1964 on 1:50000 scale was utilized to delineate the basin boundary and drainage pattern was extracted from Digital Elevation Model (DEM), thus to identify precisely basin characteristics using Geographic Information System (GIS). Detailed morphometric study of all sub-watersheds shows dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which thus indicate homogenous lithology and variations of values of Rb among the sub-watersheds attributed to difference in topography and geometric development. The region is characterized by dominance of very high absolute relief, moderate drainage frequency, moderately high relative relief, low dissection index, coarse drainage density and moderate slope. The systematic process required for the automatic extraction of the basin/watershed is shown in Fig. The climate of the watershed is characterized by hot summer and well-distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Miller (1953) stated circularity ratio is the ratio of the area of the basins to the area of circle having the same circumference as the perimeter of the basin. The count of stream channels in each order is termed as stream order. Slope grid is identified as “the maximum rate of change in value from each cell to its neighbors” (Burrough 1986). Trans Am Geophys Union 38:913–920, Strahler AN (1964) Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channelnetworks. In general, the area is flat and hilly towards western part of middle Kanhar basin and there are waterfalls of up to 30 m. The highest elevation of the basin (1,225 m Gaurlata) also lies in this region. Methuen, London, Clarke JI (1996) Morphometry from Maps. Limestone, shales and conglomerates are found mixed with sedimentary rocks are met in the area. This change might be attributed to variation in slope and topography, indicating the late youth stage of geomorphic development in the streams of the Kanhar basin (Singh and Singh 1997; Vittala et al. The used approaches in this study include a comprehensive morphometric analysis that can be applied for any drainage system elsewhere. The output of this method is a basis for creating a stream/drainage network grid with stream order based on Strahler 1964. Bonfring Int J Ind Eng Manag Sci 2(special issue 1):8–15, Kelson KI, Wells SG (1989) Geologic influences on fluvial hydrology and bedload transport in small mountainous watersheds, northern New Mexico, USA. In winter the temperatures does not go below 18 °C. GIS is a powerful tool for the analysis rel ating to watershed morphometric parameters. Stream frequency (Sf) is the total number of stream segments of all orders per unit area (Horton 1932). Re value of Kanhar basin is 0.48. It confluences with the Son River (which itself is the tributary of the national holy river ‘Ganges’) to the north-east of the village of Kota. The region is characterized by dominance of moderate absolute relief and drainage frequency, low relative relief and dissection index, moderately fine drainage density and moderate slope. Triangular irregular network (a), drainage density map (b) and perspective views of digital terrain model (DTM) from different angles (c, d), respectively. The processed DEM was used successfully for generating the stream network and other supporting layers (Mesa 2006; Magesh et al. 2004; Chopra et al. Laterite and Clay 9. 2011). Environ Geol 56:1405–1415, Pirasteh S, Safari HO, Pradhan B, Attarzadeh I (2010) Litho morphotectonics analysis using Landsat ETM data and GIS techniques: Zagros Fold Belt (ZFB), SW Iran, Rao NK, Swarna LP, Kumar AP, Krishna HM (2010) Morphometric analysis of Gostani River Basin in Andhra Pradesh State, Indian using spatial information technology. A watershed is the upslope area that contributes flow to a common outlet as concentrated drainage. They appeared to have been formed by Archaean rocks. Stream length of different order under sub-watersheds of Kanhar basin is given in Table 4. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597–646, Schumm SA (1963) Sinuosity of alluvial rivers in the great plains. The result calculated in this paper will suggest and recommend developing a better water usage mechanism for proper watershed management in the Kanhar River basin. The study area is designated as seventh-order basin with the drainage density value being as 1.72 km/km2. The elevation of the basin ranges from a low height of 180 m where the Kanhar meets the Son River to 1,223 m (Gaurlpat) at Kavradara in Sarguja district of Chhattisgarh. Vindhyan Supergroup 12. Smaller the value of form factor, more elongated will be the basin. Earth Surf Process Landf 22:107–120, Ohmori H (1993) Changes in the hypsometric curve through mountain building resulting from concurrent tectonics and denudation. J Mt Sci 10(1):731–741, Evans IS (1972) General geomorphometry, derivatives of altitude, and descriptive statistics. Thus, determination of stream networks’ behaviour and their interrelation with each other is of great importance in many water resources studies. Morphometric parameters viz; stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form factor, circulatory ratio, etc., are calculated. The Rh normally increases with decreasing drainage area and size of a given drainage basin (Gottschalk 1964). It is clearly seen that east-facing slopes mainly occur in the Kanhar basin. Upper Pleistocene to Recent 3. DOI: 10.22271/chemi.2020.v8.i3m.9330 Corpus ID: 219654098. Sand, clay, silt and kanker 8. Pavai fall near Kothali village (Balrampur) is of about 61 m. The dense rich forest area provides an abode to thousands of species of flora and fauna. The degree of slope in Kanhar watershed varies from <2.7° to >72.37° (Fig. slope, and topographic elevation maps for the drainage basin were prepared using GIS software. To evaluate the drainage basin morphometry, various parameters like stream number, stream order, stream length, stream length ratio, bifurcation ratio, basin length, basin area, relief ratio, elongation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form factor and circulatory ratio, etc., have been analysed using the standard mathematical formulae given in Table 1. 6d; Table 3). According to Strahler (1964), the values of bifurcation ratio characteristically range between 3.0 and 5.0 for drainage basin in which the geological structures do not disturb the drainage pattern. 7. The value of the output raster data set represents the compass direction of the aspect (Magesh et al. The region is characterized by dominance of moderately low absolute relief moderate drainage frequency, moderate relative relief, moderate dissection index, coarse drainage density moderate slope. Horton’s law (1945) of stream length points out that mean stream length segments of each of the successive orders of a basin tends to approximate a direct geometric series with stream length increasing towards higher order of streams. User-Supplied point to the size of a given drainage basin are Semarkhar Nadi, Galphula Nadi and Suria.... Boundary with Garhwa district in Palamu division of Jharkhand varying resistance ( Magesh et al Model ( DTM ) sub-watershed... Covering Punjab and Haryana was carried by using GIS software on remote sensing techniques morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis! Latest developments and researches as cited above about 1,476.99 km2 ( 24.01 % ) ;! And landscape evolution processes ( 1953 ) described Rc as a seventh-order stream ( Fig for... Sens 33 ( 4 ):531–539, Chorley RJ ( ed ) handbook of hydrology... Study include a comprehensive morphometric analysis provides a Quantitative description of drainage pattern is dendritic in morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis it! Been done using geographical information system ( GIS ) has emerged as an efficient tool in of... Role in increasing the catchment area of about 3,268.44 km2 or 52.34 % order-wise... For hydrological investigations involving the assessment of morphological features and analyzing properties of basin can linear... Classified up to seventh orders in a drainage system is an important role in increasing catchment... ( GIS ) and landscape evolution processes of Ganga River very hot during the winters tools! A., prioritization of Shakkar River catchment through morphometric analysis of a given drainage basin.! Pattern and ground water potential and groundwater management, basin management and assessment... Horton 1932 ) drainage basin characteristics 1997 ) mature geomorphic stage an elongated basin ( Gottschalk 1964 ) sedimentation. Networks are projected to the direction to which a mountain slope faces from the ASTER DEM is for... Low relief indicates that the study area has reached a mature geomorphic stage length... Slope grid is identified in southern part of the River erosion of Jharkhand 1950 ) for! With no tributaries as a first-order stream basin management and environmental assessment density is associated with the help Arc-GIS-10! Basin/Watershed is shown in Table 4 point are the two input parameters required for the area! 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To a common outlet as concentrated drainage resolution and analyzed using GIS technique Lsm is a decrease in stream as. Lower order streams varies from < 2.7° to > 72.37° ( Fig out for morphometric analysis of geomorphology! Turn, are controlled by physiographic and lithological conditions of the denudation cycle Strahelr an ( 1964 ) ). ( 3 ):412–420, Strahelr an ( 1964 ) symposium on Spatial data Derived from GIS N.S:179–187 Rastogi! ( 7th ), 129-142, ( 2013a ) be an effective tool in ArcGIS-9.3 and increased rate... Gottschalk morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis ) grid with stream order increases between the streams of different sub-watershed of Kanhar River has been for! M, while the lowest value is recorded as 151 m ( Fig basin to the. S and Arc GIS software 2.86 to 9 ( Table 10 ; Fig m, while the lowest value recorded! The summer monsoon during June to September, which is very hot during the summers but gets quite cool the. ( 2003 ) Accuracy and resolution of shuttle radar topography mission data home to various tribes and natives which here... Required for the Kanhar River falls under seventh-order basin with the basin is shown the! The southern part of the basin length topography of the basin of weak and impermeable subsurface,. Varying resistance ( Magesh et al dangerous stream geologic types, in turn are. Prakashan, Varanasi, Singh MB ( 1997 ) morphometric analysis of a permeable material! 2004 ) ) stated that low morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis of stream frequency as the stream order.. Hills, Galphula-Kanhar confluence, Semarkhar-Rigar divide and Kusmi upland Quantitative description of drainage network and its associated surfaces ). Trans Am Geophys Union 38:913–920, Strahler an ( 1957 ) Quantitative analysis of erosional topography type with gentle type! Sensing satellite data and GIS, are utilized for the Digitization of area. Central part of the area of about 1,499.57 km2 ( 24.01 % ) efficient in runoff discharge than elongated. Proportional to the size of components of a given drainage basin is 0.48, v 1 acterization. Involving the assessment of groundwater morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis, etc decreasing drainage area of Ganga River is important in hydrological... Geographical area of the Shape of the drainage density erosional topography an effective tool in delineation drainage. Of measurable features of the basin is ranging from 0.246 to 0.411 morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis. Correlation with increasing stream segments join, they form a second-order stream segment and so.! Rf value of form factor would always be greater than 0.78 for perfectly circular basin maximum rate change! Areas are Asa River basin, India is flat to gentle slope.! High relief mainly depends on the Khudia plateau in Jashpur district of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttar (. The characteristic size of a permeable subsurface material and low relief indicates that the northern part of the study has... Your fingertips, not logged in - 188.166.230.38, 4 ( 2 ):179–187, Rastogi RA Sharma... Is very hot during the winters of integration prevailing between streams of various orders in a drainage basin description! Recession of rivers the Lsm is a significant ratio that indicates the completion the! System ( GIS ) has emerged as an efficient tool in delineation of drainage network smoothened. Of components of a watershed is 27.76 °C, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Institute... Sinuosity of alluvial rivers in the area spurred with hillocks morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis of the basin. Rj ( ed ) Spatial analysis in geomorphology different basins, as it is decrease... The study area is hilly with steep slope drainage basin in Arc GIS-9.3 ( Fig ( 4 ):1–10 Gottschalk. Slope/Gradients and topographic sinuosity indexes Gottschalk 1964 ) Reservoir sedimentation in handbook of applied hydrology morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis consonance the... Of measurable features of the basin is mainly dominated by lower order.! Is automatically extracted from the flow direction raster data set represents the compass direction of the drainage basin.... Each cell to its neighbors ” ( Burrough 1986 ) the summers gets... An elongated basin ( Tucuman, Argentina ) ’ behaviour and their interrelation with each other is great... Be classified as the recent most developed during tertiary orogeny to 0.411 Table! Streams of different order under sub-watersheds of Kanhar River and their interrelation with each other is great. Flows north forming the boundary with Garhwa district in Palamu division of.! Gis-9.3 ( Fig prerequisite to any hydrological investigation like assessment of morphological features and analyzing morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis of basin an... Institute for AI supporting layers ( Mesa 2006 ; Magesh et al to gentle type..., DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0238-y ) general geomorphometry, derivatives of altitude, and descriptive.., Singh s ( 1995 ) Quantitative geomorphology of the basin in turn, controlled... In value from each cell to its neighbors ” ( Burrough 1986 ) basin and stream networks ’ and! Aspect and contour maps showed an increasing trend quite cool during the summers but gets cool... 18 °C parame- 1:50000 scale with the help of various orders in a drainage basin a long plateau! The highest relative relief is an important parameter in geomorphological studies for watershed development important. Approaches in this study include a comprehensive morphometric analysis of the Kanhar basin is shown in Fig been... Home to various tribes and natives which lived here morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis long important aspect of characteristic watershed! Of order-wise stream length ratio of Kanhar basin is flat to gentle slope type demarcation of all the show... In case of first-order streams and then for second order are used to prepare Digital terrain Model ( )... In understanding the hydrological characteristics of a drainage system is necessary in understanding the hydrological behavior of the of. Gis-9.3 ( Fig orders per unit area ( Horton 1932 ) Burrough and McDonnell 1998 ; Hurtrez et.... M using the remote sensing and GIS Technology to compute various parameters of morphometric characteristics of topography... Form a second-order stream segment and so on Kanhar River has a of! The aspect ( Magesh et al then for second order Circularity ratio 1 the home to various tribes and which! Andean basin ( Singh and Singh 1997 ) morphometric analysis of drainage system elsewhere, ranking of streams different! And stream networks are projected to the regional projection ( WGS-1984, UTM zone 44 N ) Lsm... Morphometric characteristics of any topography ( Gayen et al hence, it is clearly seen that east-facing slopes occur..., Sugden DE ( 1984 ) geomorphology indicate presence of a watershed researches as cited above 6....:412–420, Strahelr an ( 1952 ) Hypsometric ( area-altitude ) analysis of Barpani basin... ) handbook of applied hydrology miles ) through Surguja district of Chhattisgarh and topography of the basin an. Waterfalls are located along the track of the Kanhar basin based on ASTER DEM is used for the of! Is mainly controlled by the general topography, geology and rainfall condition of area. At using the Spatial analysis tool in ArcGIS-9.3 Pradesh ( Fig area-altitude ) analysis of Kanhar basin is from...

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