human trafficking in china 2020

xref Nationwide, some school districts reportedly compelled ethnic Han students to participate in internship programs featuring forced labor indicators. Uyghur adults and children are reportedly forced to pick cotton under direction of the Bingtuan. In cases where this forced pregnancy leads to childbirth, the men and their parents sometimes use the children as collateral to retain the women’s forced labor or sexual slavery, or use the women’s immigration status as coercion to dissuade them from reporting their abuses to the authorities. 0000274495 00000 n Foreign embassies in the PRC reportedly provided shelter or other protective services to victims. Illicit brokers increasingly facilitate the forced and fraudulent marriage of South Asian, Southeast Asian, Northeast Asian, and African women and girls to PRC national men for fees of up $30,000. Your source for credible news and authoritative insights from Hong Kong, China and the world. The men—sometimes in partnership with their parents—often incur large debts to cover these fees, which they attempt to recover by subjecting the “brides” to forced labor or sex trafficking. The PRC government reportedly did not repatriate all North Korean labor migrants pursuant to a 2017 UN Security Council resolution requiring the repatriation of all North Korean nationals earning income overseas by the end of 2019, subject to limited exceptions. 0000132025 00000 n 0000098627 00000 n • Increase oversight of seafarer labor conditions in the PRC fishing industry. PRC national men in Africa and South America experience abuse at construction sites, in coal and copper mines, and in other extractive industries, where they face conditions indicative of forced labor, such as non-payment of wages, restrictions on movement, withholding of passports, and physical abuse. The MFA confiscated, canceled, or refused to renew the passports of Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims living abroad, including those with legal permanent resident status or citizenship in other countries, as a coercive measure to lure them back to Xinjiang and likely detain them within the camps. Authorities claimed to have tracked and rescued more than 4,000 missing children through the use of an app-based system, including as many as 120 trafficking victims, but they did not provide any information on formal identification or referral measures for these children. The criminal code criminalized some forms of sex trafficking and labor trafficking. 0000066527 00000 n Authorities continued to detain North Korean asylum-seekers and forcibly return some to North Korea, where they faced severe punishment or death, including in North Korean forced labor camps; the government did not report screening these individuals for indicators of trafficking. %PDF-1.4 %���� China’s national household registry system (hukou) continues to restrict rural inhabitants’ freedom to legally change their workplace or residence, placing China’s internal migrant population—estimated to exceed 180 million men, women, and children—at high risk of forced labor in brick kilns, coal mines, and factories. 0000323294 00000 n Human Rights Watch investigated bride trafficking from northern Myanmar into China. The government did not report data on victim repatriation in 2019, but civil society groups confirmed authorities repatriated some East- African, South American, and Southeast Asian victims to their countries of origin. There are also reports of PRC national men and their parents deceiving Southeast Asian women and girls into fraudulent marriages in China, then confining them in forced concubinism involving rape leading to forced pregnancy. As Beijing’s multibillion-dollar infrastructure drive expands across Asia, experts say the greater regional connectivity may have an unwanted by-product: a rise in human trafficking. However, according to an international organization, the government continued to allocate funding to co-host capacity-building training for law enforcement and judicial officials on investigating and prosecuting trafficking cases. The government reportedly detained foreign seafarers in connection with illegal shipping practices senior vessel crew may have forced them to carry out. 0000098724 00000 n 0000274063 00000 n Traffickers kidnap or recruit women and girls through marriage brokers and transport them to the PRC, where some are subjected to sex trafficking or forced labor. 0000288921 00000 n Some of these businesses operate illegally and take advantage of lax government … trailer 0000276925 00000 n 0000024104 00000 n The government did not undertake efforts to identify trafficking victims within its highly vulnerable North Korean migrant population, nor did it provide suspected North Korean trafficking victims with legal alternatives to repatriation. For the third consecutive year, the government did not report the extent to which it funded anti-trafficking activities in furtherance of the action plan, compared to more than 55 million renminbi ($7.9 million)) in 2016. 0000302606 00000 n 0000007190 00000 n Article 241 criminalized the purchase of abducted women or children and prescribed a maximum penalty of three years’ imprisonment, short-term detention, or controlled release; like Article 240, it did not require the purchase be for the purpose of exploitation. 0000323884 00000 n 0000006994 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 0000279739 00000 n Authorities are increasingly placing the young children of interned Muslims in Xinjiang in state-run boarding schools, orphanages, and “child welfare guidance centers,” and forcing them to participate in political indoctrination activities and report on their families’ religious activities. In previous years, media reported penalties ranging from five months’ imprisonment with fines of 74,000 renminbi ($10,630) to life imprisonment. Law enforcement officials detain some PRC national and foreign women on prostitution charges without due process in “custody and education” centers, where they are subjected to forced labor. 0000277623 00000 n Based on court data and media reports, authorities did not identify any male victims during the reporting period. 0000222916 00000 n 0000278693 00000 n The China Challenge Climate and Environment Combating Drugs and Crime ... Ceremony to release the 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report. As reported over the past five years, human traffickers subject domestic and foreign individuals to trafficking in China, and they subject Chinese individuals to trafficking abroad. NGOs report ethnic Han men may be increasingly able to force Uyghur and other Turkic Muslim women into marriages under the government’s discriminatory ethnic assimilation policies, placing them at higher risk of forced labor in domestic service and other forms of exploitation. According to official PRC government documents, local governments at times arrested Muslims arbitrarily or based on spurious criminal charges and administrative violations, including violation of birth restrictions, in order to meet detention quotas established specifically for this internment system. 0000297942 00000 n • Cease penalization of victims for unlawful acts traffickers compelled them to commit. Upon conclusion of these cases, courts convicted and sentenced a total of 2,355 individuals—an increase from 1,252 in 2018 and 1,556 in 2017. • Increase the transparency of government efforts to combat trafficking and provide disaggregated data on investigations and prosecutions, victim identification, and service provision, including by continuing to share relevant data with international partners. 0000078107 00000 n Coordinator for the Arctic Region, Bureaus and Offices Reporting Directly to the Secretary, Office of the Coordinator for Cyber Issues, Office of the U.S. work, sale and profitable adoption of babies and human smuggling. Some school districts compel students into forced labor in manufacturing under the guise of mandatory internships. • Expand victim protection services, including comprehensive counseling and medical, reintegration, and other rehabilitative assistance for male and female victims of sex and labor trafficking. of human trafficking in China range from forced marriage to forced labor, forced sex . Traffickers subject PRC national men, women, and children to forced labor and sex trafficking in at least 60 other countries. Despite this policy change, similar forms of state-sponsored forced labor continue in Xinjiang, including under the auspices of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (Bingtuan)—an economic and paramilitary organization with administrative control over several areas in the region. As human trafficking is a prevalent problem within China, regulations and laws have been implemented in order to prohibit forms of trafficking. For the second consecutive year, the government did not provide data on specific law enforcement trainings, unlike in prior years. 0000275741 00000 n 0000290587 00000 n 0000276816 00000 n 0000010629 00000 n The government subjects Christians and members of other religious groups to forced labor as part of detention for the purpose of ideological indoctrination; survivors report having been forced to work in brick kilns, food processing centers, and factories manufacturing clothing and housewares. 0000034026 00000 n 2107 0 obj <>stream 0000022920 00000 n The same is true of the government’s targeted forced-displacement programs, including the Bingtuan’s construction of new settlements designated for ethnic Han internal migrants, which reportedly disperses Uyghur communities and disrupts their livelihoods. Academics and experts noted the gender imbalance created by the previous One-Child Policy and provisions of its successor, the Two-Child Policy, likely continued to contribute to trafficking crimes in the PRC. Official statistics show there were 2,700 reported cases of human trafficking in Vietnam between 2011 and 2017, involving nearly 6,000 victims mainly from poor families in rural areas. However, during the report period there was a government policy or pattern of widespread forced labor, including through the continued mass arbitrary detention of more than one million Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, ethnic Kyrgyz, and other Muslims in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang). 0000219830 00000 n 0000010472 00000 n 0000277519 00000 n Article 358 criminalized forced prostitution and prescribed penalties of five to 10 years’ imprisonment; if the offense involved a child under the age of 14, the penalties increased to 10 years’ to life imprisonment in addition to fines or confiscation of property. Citation: Zheng T. Human Trafficking in China.J His Arch & Anthropol Sci. 0000280287 00000 n The PRC continued to implement a nationwide campaign initiated during the previous reporting period to investigate corrupt local officials and police officers allegedly using their influence to shield or profit from criminal organizations engaged in commercial sex rings; this included efforts to address sex trafficking. • Criminalize all forms of sex trafficking and labor trafficking as defined under international law. 0000280444 00000 n Traffickers also use China as a transit point to subject foreign individuals to trafficking in other countries throughout Asia and in international maritime industries. Women and girls from South Asia, Southeast Asia, and several countries in Africa experience forced labor in domestic service, forced concubinism leading to forced childbearing, and sex trafficking via forced and fraudulent marriage to Chinese men. Authorities also expanded the campaign into other provinces, began implementing it among other religious minorities, and sought the coerced repatriation and internment of religious and ethnic minorities living abroad. Reports indicate authorities partially staffed internment camp facilities using forced labor, including among Mandarin language instructors. Local governments receive additional funds for each inmate forced to work in these sites at a fraction of minimum wage or without any compensation. The human trafficking facts in 2021 we will be tracking are largely consistent with what we’ve been carefully observing for years. 0000007800 00000 n Article 240 prescribed penalties of five to 10 years’ imprisonment and fines for the abduction and sale of women and children. 0000010857 00000 n However, these residency permits were disproportionately unavailable to China’s minorities, exacerbating their constrained access to employment and social services. 0000277838 00000 n Many detained individuals approved to “graduate” from these facilities were sent to external manufacturing sites in close proximity to the camps or in other provinces and subjected to forced labor, while others were transferred and potentially subjected to forced labor within a separate formal prison system. Despite continued reports of law enforcement officials benefiting from, permitting, or directly facilitating sex trafficking and forced labor, the government did not report any investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of law enforcement officials allegedly involved in the crime. The scale of trafficking is escalating: originally the crime was mainly committed in a few provinces, but has now spread to nearly every province in China. startxref Traffickers subject PRC national women and girls to sex trafficking throughout the world, including in major cities, construction sites, remote mining and logging camps, and areas with high concentrations of PRC national migrant workers. The PRC lacked a standardized national referral mechanism, but MPS maintained written instructions promulgated in 2016 for law enforcement officers throughout the country aiming to clarify procedures for identifying trafficking victims among individuals in commercial sex and forced or fraudulent marriage. 0000306864 00000 n 0000021855 00000 n 0000007483 00000 n 0000216800 00000 n 0000274279 00000 n In compliance with a UN Security Council resolution, the government reportedly repatriated some North Korean labor migrants; Chinese authorities did not screen them for trafficking indicators or offer options to legally remain in the country. Labor trafficking offenses could be prosecuted under Article 244, which criminalized forcing a person “to work by violence, threat, or restriction of personal freedom” and recruiting, transporting, or otherwise assisting in forcing others to labor, and prescribed three to 10 years’ imprisonment and a fine. 0000279937 00000 n The government made no efforts to reduce the demand for commercial sex. 0000177222 00000 n Contacts report families separated by this system are more likely to fall below the poverty line and are therefore at higher risk of sex trafficking and forced labor. The judicial system did not require victims to testify against their traffickers in court and allowed prosecutors to submit previously recorded statements as evidence; however, authorities required some foreign victims to stay in the PRC to assist in police investigations until their conclusion. Authorities did not condition access to victim care on cooperation with law enforcement, but they did require victims to provide information to police. Some forced marriage cases, many of which continued to demonstrate corollary indicators of sex trafficking and forced labor, were mediated at the village collective-level; these proceedings rarely culminated in a guilty verdict through which victims were granted restitution. I went below poverty line in 2020. MPS continued to coordinate the anti-trafficking interagency process and led interagency efforts to implement the 2013-2020 National Action Plan on Combating Human Trafficking, including research into the efficacy of national efforts to combat the crime, and the government reportedly continued formulating a draft version of its next iteration. 0000279181 00000 n African residents of the PRC displaced through discriminatory eviction policies related to the COVID-19 pandemic may be at higher risk of sex trafficking and forced labor due to ensuing homelessness and other economic hardships. 0000216716 00000 n 0000277731 00000 n The government closed most RTL facilities by October 2015; however, the government reportedly converted some RTL facilities into state-sponsored drug rehabilitation facilities or administrative detention centers where, according to civil society and media reports, forced labor continues. Myanmar’s anti-human-trafficking police force has handled 106 human-trafficking cases in 11 months of 2020, and 160 victims of which were trafficked, according to Myanmar Anti-Human Trafficking Police Force. 0000010577 00000 n hޤ�4�Y�w�c&G3ʛ�Y뱪Af*�Q��(�Um�4z��`"�J�d+��"�,�hۈ {j�d#�[N�R��3��^�g��9����}����}�/ ��SA�����Ա�$P9H��. The U.S. Department of State’s 2019 Trafficking In Persons Report annually ranks progress by country in the fight against human trafficking. MPS officials reportedly maintained a procedure to screen for trafficking indicators among individuals arrested for alleged prostitution. <<8E78C964BAD8B5488561A7EA4FCFA1B8>]/Prev 630096/XRefStm 5467>> 0000216293 00000 n 0000125649 00000 n Companies operating under the auspices of the Japanese government’s “Technical Intern Training Program” have exploited PRC nationals in forced labor in food processing, manufacturing, construction, and fishing. Implementation of a law placing foreign NGOs in the PRC under MPS supervision continued to impose burdensome requirements and restrictions on the activities of civil society organizations, including those able to provide services for trafficking victims and communities vulnerable to the crime. Some law enforcement personnel in neighboring countries reported their PRC counterparts were unresponsive to requests for bilateral cooperation on cross-border trafficking cases, while others reported the PRC’s cumbersome law enforcement bureaucracy hindered joint operations. International civil society groups reported the PRC’s diplomatic missions were often unresponsive to complaints filed by PRC national victims of forced labor overseas, particularly in Japan. Authorities also reportedly interfered in the provision of protection services to some Chinese victims identified overseas. Observers reported insufficient oversight of the PRC’s extensive fishing industry continued to leave PRC national and foreign seafarers at high risk of forced labor. The impact of formal discriminatory employment policies barring Uyghurs from jobs in many sectors—including in the annual cotton harvest—reportedly drives thousands of Uyghur farmers out of their communities in search of alternative work, placing them at higher risk of forced labor. These penalties were sufficiently stringent. • Respecting due process, vigorously investigate, prosecute, and impose prison sentences on perpetrators of forced labor and sex trafficking, including complicit government officials. 1941 0 obj <> endobj The Government of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; therefore the PRC remained on Tier 3. 0000307288 00000 n Following “graduation” from these facilities, the government subjects many of these individuals to forced labor in adjacent or off-site factories producing garments, carpets, electronics, bedding, hair products, cleaning supplies, and other goods for domestic and international distribution. Some of these businesses operate illegally and take advantage of lax government enforcement. Coercive conditions reportedly include threats of physical violence, forcible drug intake, physical and sexual abuse, and torture. U.S. Efforts to Stop Trafficking, Including in China October 31, 2020 Human Trafficking. State-sponsored forced labor is increasingly prevalent in China. 0000276170 00000 n Many North Korean refugees and asylum-seekers living illegally in the PRC are particularly vulnerable to trafficking. 0000007345 00000 n Authorities engaged in law enforcement cooperation with an unknown number of foreign governments to investigate cases of PRC citizens subjected to trafficking abroad, including in South and Southeast Asia. When China’s human rights record came up for a routine review in 2018 and 2019 at the Human Rights Council, Chinese officials threatened critical delegations while encouraging allies to heap praise. State-sponsored forced labor continued under the government’s mass detention and political indoctrination campaign against more than one million Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, ethnic Kyrgyz, and members of other Muslim minority groups in Xinjiang. Access to specialized care depended heavily on victims’ location and gender; experts noted ad hoc referral procedures and an acute lack of protection services in the south, and male victims were far less likely to receive care nationwide. 0000303073 00000 n PRC national-owned factories and agricultural plantations in Burma reportedly subject local and internal migrant populations to forced labor; the same may also be true for PRC national-owned logging operations there. The government continued to address some of these vulnerabilities by requiring local governments to provide a mechanism for migrant workers to obtain residency permits. 0000275525 00000 n The efficacy of the government’s previously reported victim assistance abroad—including its eight border liaison offices with Burma, Laos, and Vietnam, along with victim funds, hotlines, and government-to-government agreements to assist victims—was unclear. PRC national traffickers operating abroad also subject local populations to sex trafficking in several countries in Africa, the Mediterranean region, and South America. 0000296818 00000 n It is a country of origin, destination, and transit for sexually trafficked persons. Mongolian boys are at high risk of forced labor and sex trafficking under visa regimes that enable them to work indefinitely as herders, horse jockeys and circus performers across the PRC border, provided they return with a chaperone once a month. The government did not report investigating or prosecuting any Chinese citizens for child sex tourism, despite widespread reports of the crime. 0000275956 00000 n 0000317543 00000 n 0000012010 00000 n Human trafficking is any forced exploitation or trade of human beings against their will. Some are promised jobs abroad and confined to private homes upon arrival overseas, held in conditions indicative of forced labor, and compelled to conduct telephone scams. Authorities continued to carry out discriminatory surveillance and ethno-racial profiling measures to illegally detain members of these communities in internment camps under the pretext of combating violent extremism. Elsewhere, religious and political activists held in legal education facilities continue to report forced labor occurring in pretrial detention and outside of penal sentences. 0000289825 00000 n First, the “industrial chain” of human trafficking is analyzed. For the third consecutive year, the government did not report the number of victims it identified, although media reports indicated authorities continued to remove some victims from their exploitative situations. 0000125480 00000 n Identified as a source, transit, and destination country for human trafficking, issues of human trafficking in China range from forced marriage to forced labor, forced sex work, sale and profitable adoption of babies, and human smuggling (Hendrix 2010; Emerton et al. 0000010419 00000 n 0000217390 00000 n The government also transferred thousands of these detainees, along with non-interned minority communities designated arbitrarily as “rural surplus labor,” to other areas within Xinjiang as part of a poverty alleviation program and exploited them in forced labor. A small number of PRC national women are reportedly subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor via forced or fraudulent marriages to Taiwan men. UN-ACT China 3-2-121 Tayuan Diplomatic Compound, No.1 Xindong Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100600, P.R. According to NGO reports, Bingtuan regiments manage at least 36 agricultural prison farms throughout Xinjiang; unlike the aforementioned mass detention campaign, this system primarily subjects ethnic Han Chinese inmates—many of whom may be victims of arbitrary detention—to forced labor. 0000304233 00000 n 0000010233 00000 n If an abducted woman was then forced into prostitution, the penalties increased to 10 years’ to life imprisonment, fines, and confiscation of property. 0000219282 00000 n 0000280915 00000 n The government reportedly subjects some Tibetans to arbitrary detention featuring similar political indoctrination and forced prison labor practices in the Tibet Autonomous Region (Tibet) and neighboring provinces. 0000044702 00000 n Traffickers also subject undocumented PRC national seafarers to forced labor on board fishing vessels in Taiwan’s Distant Water Fleet. 0000117716 00000 n Second, the analysis indicates that the “buyers market” exhibits a strong demand for trafficking in women. The U.S. Department of State reported that China had "arrested 19 of the country’s 20 most wanted traffickers and pursuit of cri… 0000280033 00000 n The government decreased law enforcement efforts, including by continuing to apply extensive law enforcement and paramilitary resources toward the mass detention and forced labor of Uyghurs and members of Muslim and other ethnic and religious minority groups. 0000273703 00000 n 0000293641 00000 n 0000009662 00000 n 0000325399 00000 n 0000225716 00000 n According to the 2013–2020 China National Plan of Action on Combating Trafficking in Women and Children (2013–2020 National Action Plan), training programs are to be provided to anti-trafficking personnel nationwide. Did you know human trafficking (both sex and labor) is the second-largest criminal enterprise? %%EOF 0000274387 00000 n State-sponsored forced labor is intensifying under the government’s mass detention and political indoctrination campaign against Muslim minorities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang). The State Department on Thursday named 10 countries that it said engaged in government-sponsored forced labor, qualifying them for the lowest possible ranking in an annual report on human trafficking. These penalties were sufficiently stringent and commensurate with the penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Authorities also reportedly subject some Buddhist clerics to political indoctrination activities and forced labor in monasteries repurposed as factories. 0000106847 00000 n The government expanded this campaign through the transfer of more than 80,000 detainees into forced labor in as many as 19 other provinces during the reporting period, according to NGO estimates and media reports. Authorities in some localities also subject the families of men arbitrarily detained in Xinjiang to forced labor in their absence. Various provisions of the criminal code could be used to prosecute sex trafficking offenses. 0000296580 00000 n 0000276278 00000 n Traffickers lure, drug, detain, or kidnap some North Korean women upon their arrival in the PRC and compel them into commercial sex in brothels and bars, through internet sex sites, or in relation to forced marriage. • In conjunction with receiving countries, increase efforts to detect and prevent abusive migrant labor contract provisions placing PRC national workers at higher risk of forced labor. 0000216857 00000 n 0000005924 00000 n China Tel: + 86 10 6420 1827 Fax: + 86 10 6420 3115. First, 2020 marks the 20th anniversary of the United States’ Trafficking Victims Protection Act. 0000290361 00000 n 0000008071 00000 n For the third consecutive year, the Ministry of Public Security (MPS) did not report the number of investigations initiated into possible trafficking cases, compared to 1,004 in 2016. However, authorities did not provide statistics on the number of investigations, prosecutions, or convictions resulting from this campaign. • Cease all forced urban resettlement and displacement programs, particularly those targeting Uyghurs, Tibetans, and members of other ethnic and religious minority groups. Traffickers typically recruit them from rural areas and take them to urban centers, using a combination of fraudulent job offers and coercion by imposing large travel fees, confiscating passports, confining victims, or physically and financially threatening victims to compel their engagement in commercial sex. • Ensure authorities do not subject trafficking victims to extended detention, punishment, or deportation. 0 Despite the existence of these procedures, and contrary to the aforementioned policy, law enforcement officials continued to arrest and detain foreign women on suspicion of prostitution crimes without screening them for indicators of sex trafficking—sometimes for as long as four months—before deporting them for immigration violations. 0000278050 00000 n Human trafficking is a seriouscrime and violation of human rights, involving force, coercion, or fraud to exploit a person into slave labor or sexual exploitation.. Human trafficking can happen to people of all ages and genders and any race or religious background.Women are often used for sexual exploitation, while men are usually used for forced labor. Officials at multiple levels were also complicit in state-sponsored forced labor as part of the PRC’s mass detention and political indoctrination campaign against members of ethnic and religious minority groups, and some officials reportedly profited directly from this system; authorities reportedly subjected Tibetans and members of other ethno-religious groups to similar abuses. 0000177508 00000 n 0000222517 00000 n 0000003714 00000 n By Travis McMillen & Paul Pepper • Feb 26, 2020 . 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